Category Archives: Fuels and Chemicals. from Biomass

Fuels and Chemicals. from Biomass

The PRODUCTION OF FUELS AND CHEMICALS from biomass faces signi­ficant technical and economic challenges at present. Its success depends largely on the development of environmentally friendly pretreatment pro­cedures, a highly effective multienzyme system for conversion of pre­treated biomass to fermentable sugars, and efficient microorganisms to ferment mixed sugar substrates to fuels and chemicals. It is timely to pro­vide a book […]

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Process Integration

The combination of simulation and bench-scale experiments may also be used to investigate the benefits of process integration regarding energy consumption. The integration can be performed internally within the ethanol plant or by integrating various parts of the ethanol plant with another type of plant, such as a pulp mill or a heat-generating plant. The latter requires, of course, detailed […]

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Hemicellulose conversion

Hemicelluloses are heterogeneous polymers of pentoses (xylose and L-arabinose), hexoses (mannose) and sugar acids. Xylans, major hemicelluloses of many plant materials, are heteropolysaccharides with a homopolymeric backbone chain of 1,4-linked P-D-xylopyranose units. Besides xylose, xylans may contain L-arabinose, D-glucuronic acid or its 4-o-methyl ether, and acetic, p-coumaric, and ferulic acids.

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Computer-mediated addition of substrate through the monitoring of weight changes of the alkali and substrate reservoirs

At the initiation of the experiment the amount of fresh substrate to be delivered per unit weight of alkali fed (a) was set on the computer. In the initial series of experiments, a was varied to determine its effect on the dilution rate and residual glucose concentration at steady state. The software also incorporated a short program for signal conditioning […]

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Kinetic Analysis of Cell Growth and Product Formation

Biebl (4) studied the inhibition potentials of 1,3-PD, acetic acid, butyric acid and glyce­rol on the growth of C. butyricum in a pH-auxostat culture and found that all these sub­stances are toxic to C. butyricum. The critical concentrations of these substances, i. e., concentrations above which cells cease to grow, were found to be: 27 g/1 for acetic acid (0.49 […]

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