Category Archives: Fuels and Chemicals. from Biomass

Photosynthesis and High Energy Crops

Carbon dioxide emission in the biosphere is attributed to two sources, one biological and the other industrial. Industrial carbon dioxide emission is mainly from the exhaust gases of industrial processes. Where carbon dioxide occurs in high concentration in such processes, the carbon dioxide in the exhaust gas can be trapped and then recovered for uses as a raw material. However, […]

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Sago Palm

Gregarious sago palm is limited to tropical areas such as Malaysia (Sarawak), Indonesia, and Papua New Guinea (5). The starch productivity of sago palm is several times greater than that of tapioca (cassava), wheat, and rice, i. e. sago palm has a high efficiency of photosynthesis. Recently, Sarawak, a state of Malaysia, has successfully cultivated a sago plantation on 7,000 […]

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Natural Rubber Waste

Natural rubber is also one of biomass made by recycling carbon dioxide by photosynthesis. Cost saving and increase productivity of natural rubber give a chance to win the competition of natural rubber against synthetic rubber made by petrochemical industry. Recently, our laboratory has developed NRSP (Natural Rubber Serum Powder) which is the spray dried product of the waste from natural […]

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Anaerobic Fermentation

To develop any chemical or biochemical technology for recycling carbon dioxide to serve as a counter-measure against carbon dioxide elevation in the at­mosphere, it is obvious that the process should not use fossil fuel. In this regard, it is also better to avoid aerobic bioprocesses which are accompanied by carbon di­oxide emission. Aerobic bioprocesses involve the oxidation of organic substrates […]

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Metabolic Model for CO Bioconversion

The complexity of the catabolic pathway of B. methylotrophicum makes it difficult to extract patterns of metabolic regulation from the experimental data. Metabolic models that calculate the fluxes of carbon, electron, and ATP fluxes through the various branches from the experimental data can aid in this process. However, development of such models requires that the stoichiometry of the individual reactions […]

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Implications for Commercial Development of Synthesis-Gas Fermentations

The significance of the studies summarized above can be discussed in the context of increasing bioreactor productivity in synthesis-gas fermentations. Metabolic modeling can be used to calculate the maximum theoretical yields possible from synthesis gas or combined with experimental data to calculate the fluxes of carbon, electron, and ATP through the branched metabolic pathways. Such information is useful in elucidating […]

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T ransesterifkation

The conversion of component TGs to simple alkyl esters (transesterification) with various alcohols reduces the high viscosity of oils and fats (see also Figure 1). Base catalysis of the transesterification with reagents such as sodium hydroxide is preferred over acid catalysis because the former is more rapid (74). Transesterification is a reversible reaction. The transesterification of soybean oil with methanol […]

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