Category Archives: BIOFUELS FROM ALGAE

Filtration

Filtration is a physical separation process in which the particles in suspension are retained using a filter. The filters are highly efficient and safe in the solid-liquid separation process (Pires et al., 2012). The filtration is a separation method that is suitable for large microalgae

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3.4 OTHER STRATEGIES

3.4.1 Optimization of Light Conversion Efficiency (LHCB) Optimization of light conversion efficiency (LCE) is another way to make microalgae-based biofuels cost-effective. LCE is defined by Ghirardi et al. (2009) as the "fraction of the energy content of the incident solar spectrum that is converted into chemical energy by the organ­ism." It has been known that sunlight intensities are much higher […]

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Flocculation-Sedimentation

A process of flocculation followed by gravity sedimentation for algae separation has been studied (Golueke and Oswald, 1965). Treating high rate oxidation pond effluent, the process achieved up to 85% of the algal biomass using alum as a coagulant. The process was found reliable, and various algae species could be separated to achieve an algae slurry of 1.5% solids content. […]

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Base-Catalyzed Transesterification

Base-catalyzed transesterification of microalgae oil is used most frequently and involves the presence of a base catalyst (hydroxides/carbonates) to precede the reaction (Meher et al., 2006; Vargha and Truter, 2005). In the reaction, the triglycerides are readily transesterified batchwise in the presence of the catalyst at an atmospheric pressure and tem­perature of 60-70 °C in the presence of excess methanol […]

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Halogenated Materials

10.3.5.1 Iodine Marine algae are known for their high mineral content, so they have been used as feed and food supplements. In fact, they have 10-100 times the mineral content of traditional vege­tables (Arasaki and Arasaki, 1983; Nishizawa, 2002), with ash reaching levels of up to 55% on a dry-weight basis, whereas sweet corn has a content of 2.6% and […]

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Raceway Pond Systems

The raceway pond system is currently the most economically feasible cultivation method for mass production of algal biomass, primarily due to its relatively low capital cost and ease of operation. The pond usually consists of a closed-loop recirculation channel (oval in shape) where mixing and circulation are provided by paddlewheels to avoid algal biomass sedi­mentation. The CO2 source is sparged […]

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Inventory

Inventory data of microalgal-based energy production systems are based on models or extrapolation of lab-scale or pilot-scale data. This is a clear source of uncertainty and variabil­ity between studies. Consequently, it is important that each new study clearly sources its data and provides detailed inventory data for each process of the production. Hence, a mass and energy balance of each […]

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Biofuels

Microalgae are a potential source of fermentable substrate. According to the conditions of cultivation, microalgal biomass can provide high levels of carbon compounds. These com­pounds are available directly for fermentation or after pre-treatment and may be used for eth­anol production.

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Botryococcus braunii

Botryococcus is a colonial microalga that is widespread in fresh and brackish waters of all con­tinents. It is characterized by its slow growth and by containing up to 50% by weight of hydro­carbons. B. braunii is classified into A, B, and L races, mainly based on the difference between the hydrocarbons produced (Metzger and Largeau, 2005). Banerjee et al. (2002) […]

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