Category Archives: Biomasses identities

Thermochemical conversion

The thermochemical conversion processes are [3, 36]: • direct combustion, • gasification and • pyrolysis. 3.1 Direct combustion Among the several processes for the thermochemical conversion of biomasses, direct combustion is, without doubt, the most ancient and mature technology. Despite this, many research studies are being continuously carried out with the aim of developing this technique further, making it more […]

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Commercial forms

1.2 Liquid state combustible biomasses Before being introduced into the market, the lignocellulose biomasses are usually subjected to a transformation process to give them the necessary physical and energy characteristics for their use in the energy plants. Firewood (logs or stub pipes), chips, pellets and briquettes are the main commercial forms for this biomass category.

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Co-digestion

The anaerobic digestion process can be realized simultaneously using more typologies of substrates (co-substrates): in this case, we talk about co-digestion. The applicable co-substrates can be effluents from intensive animal breeding, agricultural residuals, bio-solids, agro-alimentary industry rejections, etc.

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Gasification

Gasification is a thermochemical conversion process that transforms a solid com­bustible into a gaseous combustible which shows ease of complete combustion without the need for excess air, ease of turning on and ease of transport and clean­ing of the combustion. The disadvantage is the energy expense that is required for the gasification process. The gas obtained from the gasification of […]

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Densified forms: pellets

The birth of the wood pellet can be traced back to 1973 when, in Idaho (USA), an engineer created a new kind of wooden fuel. In the beginning, it was created for an industrial use, but rapidly its use spread to the domestic boilers market. By the term pellet we mean a densified bio-combustible, normally cylindrical-shaped (usually with a variable […]

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Bio-gas in solid rejections dumps

The management of rubbish and particularly the final rubbish disposal in controlled dumps with a high level of compaction of the material allow the establishment of anaerobiosis conditions that are necessary for bio-gas production after the decom­position of the organic content which is present in the rubbish. The collection of the gas produced, which happens through appropriate cargo systems, is […]

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Fixed-bed gasificators

These gasificators represent the most tested gasification technology. They show the highest limited dimensions and low reaction speed, although their use is lim­ited to the smaller powers. The feed material must have uniform granulometry and a low fine particle content, to avoid overloads and allow ‘empty space’ which is enough for the passage of gas through the bed.

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Densified forms: the briquette

Similar to pelletization, the briquette also represents a particularly interesting technology because by reducing the material density it allows to concentrate high energy reserves in a contained volume. The briquette, in fact, is a bio-fuel that has a parallelepiped or cylindrical shape; it is obtained by compressing some pulverized biomass with or without the help of pressing additives. Dur­ing the […]

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