Category Archives: Biomasses identities

Oil extraction and bio-diesel production

Bio-diesel can be produced by using as raw materials both oils extracted from oil cultures (vegetable oil extraction process: soy, sunflower, rape, etc.) and oils that are recovered (regeneration process of vegetable oils) from alimentary uses through separate collection systems. The products that are obtained upstream of the extraction and the regeneration can be directly applied as a combustible or […]

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The carbon dioxide emissions balance

Biomasses are considered neutral energy sources in terms of greenhouse effects because their combustion does not result in an increase in the concentration of atmospheric carbon dioxide. In fact, given that the quantity of carbon dioxide emitted in the combustion phase is equivalent to that absorbed by the vegetables during their growth, the CO2 cycle is closed. But taking into […]

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Energy from biomasses

1 Biomass energy conversion There are multiple methods for the conversion of biomass energy. Generally, the biomass is transformed into a more easily manageable form (solid, liquid or gaseous bio-fuel) in which it is used [1, 3, 5]. Before proceeding with the analysis of the main modalities of biomass energy conversion, it is important to note that conver­sion is only […]

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Vegetable oil regeneration

The alimentary origin-exhausted vegetable oils that can be used for energy valoriza­tion are those that are obtained from industrial processes (from ovens and fryers) and from domestic users (frying oils and oil for food conservation). Before being transformed into bio-diesel, the oils of alimentary origin must be subjected to the regeneration process which involves the following steps: removal of the […]

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The agro-alimentary industry

Some wastes that are produced from the agro-alimentary industry, because of their organic lead and their high humidity content, are appropriate for the treat­ment, through anaerobic digestion (par. 2.1, Chapter 4). The main agro-alimentary industry wastes that can be applied to energy recovery through bio-methane, with a specific production of bio-gas between 0.25 and 0.35 m3/kg ds, are:

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Transesterification

The reaction that is used for the synthesis of bio-diesel is known as transesterification, a process in which oils react with methanol, in the presence of a catalyst, to form methyl ester (bio-diesel) and raw glycerine, as a secondary product. In other words, the reaction induces the breakdown of the triglycerides molecules that make up the vegetable fats to obtain […]

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Urban residuals

The urban solid wastes (USW) that, defined as biomass, can be considered as renew­able energy sources include all the green biodegradable fractions, which can be divided into those made of lignocellulose wastes component and an humid organic component. The residuals coming from the garden management and public or private boulevards of the habited centres belong to the lignocellulose wastes. Although […]

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