Category Archives: Biomasses identities

Bio-diesel

The limitations posed by the use of vegetable oils in some typologies engines, in particular those that require auto traction, due to the high viscosity of the combustible, can be overcome by the transformation of oils into bio-diesel, which is obtained by the esterification process (this will be analysed in detail in the par. 2.4.3, Chapter 4). Vegetable oils are […]

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The agricultural compartment

In the combustible production from the biomass, the agricultural compartment has and it will have a more and more relevant role. This compartment, in fact, gives a great number of materials that are applicable for energy production (residual prod­ucts that are derived both from other cultivations and from specialist cultivations that are dedicated to the production of combustible biomass materials). […]

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Pyrolysis

The process of pyrolysis consists of a thermochemical conversion that allows transforming the organic substance into final fuel products (solid, liquid, gase­ous). Pyrolysis takes place in the absence of oxidizing agents, or with a limited presence of these agents so that the oxidation reactions can be neglected. The heat required for the evolution of the process can be indirectly supplied […]

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Bio-ethanol

Ethanol can be produced chemically starting from a fossil source or by fermenta­tion starting from biomasses. This second method leads to the so-called bio-ethanol production. Bio-ethanol is a vegetable origin fuel which is obtained by the fermentation of alcohol from sugars and complex carbohydrates, such as starch, cellulose and hemi — cellulose. However, the raw materials for ethanol production can […]

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The cellulosic section of the bio-ethanol production spinneret

In this section, ethanol is obtained from raw cellulosic materials or from materials with high content of cellulose and hemicelluloses. Even though it is not possible to register the industrial scale production of cellulosic origin at the worldwide level, the possibility of using lignocellulosic residuals in this manner has initiated many research and development activities, particularly in the United States.

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Agricultural residuals

The agricultural residuals include the set of by-products which are derived from the cultures cultivation, and they are generally for an alimentary purpose; otherwise, they are not usable or have alternative and marginal uses. The residuals that come from this compartment show physical and energy characteristics that, together with economic barriers (collection costs, low density for unit surface), do not […]

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Environmental aspects

1 Reduction of emissions into the atmosphere The higher environmental benefit due to the use of biomasses for energy production purposes is connected with the substitution of fossil sources with renewable sources. This is rendered both by the reduction in the use of these sources (that are exhausted because of their nature) and by the decrease in the polluting emissions […]

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Combustible biomasses in the gaseous state

4.3.1 Bio-gas Bio-gas is a combustible with high calorific power (4,500-6,500 kcal/N m3 depending on the chemical composition of the gas) that is obtained by anaerobic digestion (see par. 2.1, Chapter 4) of an organic substance. The main components of bio-gas are methane (CH4) and carbon dioxide (CO2); other substances with a lesser percentage are carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen (N2), […]

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