Category Archives: Biomasses identities

Aerobic digestion

Aerobic digestion involves the metabolizing of the organic substances by micro­organisms, whose development is controlled by the presence of oxygen. These bacteria convert the complex substances into other simpler substances, freeing CO2 and H2O and result in high substrate heating (the layer under the biomass that is not yet digested by bacteria), which is proportional to their metabolic activity.

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Biomasses identities

1 Introduction The term biomass encompasses a large number of materials of an extremely heterogeneous nature. We can state that everything that has an organic matrix is a biomass. Plastics and fossil materials have been excluded, even though they belong to the family of carbon compounds, because they do not have anything in common with the characterization of the organic […]

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Fluid-bed gasificators

A fluid bed is a suspension of solid particles in an ascendant current of gas. The gas is introduced at pressure from the bottom of the reactor, whereas the parti­cles enter from above. When the solid remains in suspension, we talk about the fluidization condition that is reached for a determinate speed of the gas in which the fluid bed, […]

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Alcohol fermentation

Alcohol fermentation is a biotechnological process which allows the production of bio-ethanol from simple carbohydrates (glucose, sucrose, mannose) and from long chain polysaccharides (starch, cellulose, hemicelluloses). Therefore, the raw materials necessary for obtaining this biocombustible can be derived from alcohol producing dedicated cultures both sacchariferous (sugar beet, sugar sorghum, etc.) and starchy (soft wheat and corn) as well as from […]

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Definition and classification

The definition of biomass which is taken from Directive 2001/77/CE, and acknowl­edged at a national level from the Legislative Decree no. 387 of 29 December 2003, reunites a wide class of materials of vegetable and animal origin that also includes rubbish. More simply, the biomasses which are appropriate for energy transformation, if it happens directly using the biomass or prior […]

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Fuel biomass in the liquid state

4.2.1 Vegetable oils From sunflower seeds and rape seeds, oils are extracted which can, actually, be used without the need of further bio-fuels; therefore, they can be applied to the energy range just as combustibles of liquid fossil origin. Table 11 lists the main energy characteristics of combustible oils and compares them with the characteristics of gasoline.

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The sacchariferous section of the bio-ethanol production spinneret

The sacchariferous section is aimed at the energy conversion of the sugars that are obtained from sugarcane, sugar sorghum and sugar beet. From a technological point of view, the energy spinneret is articulated in the following phases: extraction of the sugars from the vegetable textiles, their fermentation and ethanol distillation. Generally, the fermentation is induced by the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. […]

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Origin and nature

1.1 The forest and agro-forest behaviour The forest residuals, resulting from the different kinds of forest-cultural interven­tion, are commonly indicated as forest biomasses. The interesting operations for the sample of forest biomass aimed at energy production purposes include forest — cultural interventions in woods which are controlled both by high fores (which is applied when the wood comprises plants that […]

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