Category Archives: Handbook of biofuels production

Conclusions and future trends

This work sets out a comprehensive review of catalytic pyrolysis centred on the production of fuel oils for use in transportation and energy production. An overview of pyrolysis economics is given and the environmental requirement to generate fuels that are environmentally benign. It should be stressed that catalytic pyrolysis should be viewed as a ‘refinement’ of thermal pyrolysis. The products […]

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Biomass gasification

At first biomass gasification was primarily envisioned for heat and power production. Nowadays, the production of liquid fuels and chemicals via synthesis gas is also regarded as an interesting route. The developments in the coal and oil industry have led to three archetype (biomass) gasifiers, viz.: fixed bed, fluid bed and entrained flow. From extensions of these archetypes and combinations […]

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Production of biodiesel/biofuel from deodorizer distillates

This chapter proposes to offer an overview of different processes used to convert DD to biodiesel/biofuel. Additionally, different processes to recover valuable minor components are described where conversion of FFA and/or acylglycerols to FAME (fatty acid methyl ester) was applied in order to facilitate their purification. However, most of the literature study targets either quality of biodiesel/biofuel or quality of […]

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Pilot plants in fermentative hydrogen production process

Up to now, a continuous scaled-up process for sustainable fermentative H2 production has not been reported in the literature. Only very few studies, are available so far, regarding the fermentation of sugars to hydrogen, at pilot scale. Ren et al. (2006) performed a pilot scale study in a continuous flow anaerobic fermentative reactor with an active volume of 1.48 m3 […]

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Production of bio-syngas and biohydrogen via gasification

A. DUTTA, University of Guelph, Canada and B. ACHARYA, Dalhousie University, Canada Abstract: Gasification is becoming a most attractive conversion technology for energy production from fossil fuels, as well as an alternative source of biomass. This chapter gives an insight into gasification, beginning with a general introduction. It discusses different types of gasifier, as well as some of the innovative […]

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High-temperature reforming in supercritical water

For high temperatures (>500°C), alkalis have been proposed as catalysts.18 Alkalis promote the water gas shift and methanation reactions leading to more hydrogen or methane production and a carbon monoxide lean gas. The studies on whether or not alkalis enhance the extent of gasification are contradictory.64,65 Recovery of alkalis from the process may be a problem, because alkalis hardly dissolve […]

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Utilisation of vegetable pure plant oil and crude oil in diesel engines

23.2.1 Introduction Early in the research stage CJO was considered to be suitable as a fuel oil based on its visual properties. The greatest difference between CJO and diesel oil is in viscosity. The high viscosity of CJO may contribute to the formation of carbon deposits in Compression Ignition Engines (CIE). Incomplete fuel combustion results in reduced engine life. Reducing […]

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Basics of catalysis

Catalysis is the foundation of the chemistry industry and is widely used in large scale synthesis of bulk chemicals and fine chemicals. It is the heart of the fertiliser, petroleum, polymer, inorganic and pharmaceutical industries amongst others and is of growing importance in environmental control including pollutant and waste mitigation, pollution ablation as well as in the generation of new […]

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