Category Archives: Biofuels Refining and Performance

Methane production

The biology of an “oxidation pond” is not well understood. The algae-versus — bacterial growth needs to be controlled, and anaerobicity and temperature need to be maintained properly. The carbonaceous matter tends to ferment, and methane is produced instead of carbon dioxide. The end product, methane, can be used either as a direct fuel or through a suitably designed fuel […]

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Mahua oil

Crop description. Madhuca indica—commonly known as madhuka, yappa, mahuda, mahua, mauwa, mohwa, hippe, butter tree, mahwa, mahula, or elupa—belongs to the family Sapotaceae and grows up to 21 m high. This deciduous tree is distributed mainly in India (see Fig. 4.9). The kernels are 70% of seed by weight. Seeds content includes 35% oil and 16% protein. Main fatty acids […]

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Engine performance with esters of vegetable oil

Hawkins et al. [53] have conducted combustion studies on methyl and ethyl esters of degummed sunflower oil, maize oil, cottonseed oil, peanut oil, soybean oil, and castor oil. Fuel properties of the esters were very sim­ilar to each other, except the esters of castor oil which were much more vis­cous. The heating values of ethyl esters were also considerably lower. […]

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Cracking by In Situ Catalysts

This method is applicable for cellular biomass containing lipids, e. g., sewage sludge or organic residues from rendering plants. The European Union is looking for new markets for both materials. On the one hand, treatment of municipal and industrial wastewaters gener­ates huge quantities of sludge, which is the unavoidable by-product especially if biological processes are used. Management of this residue […]

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Series-arranged continuous flow fermentation

Ethanol can be produced by using continuous flow fermentors arranged in a series with complete sugar utilization or high ethanol concentra­tion. With two fermentors arranged in a series, the retention time can be chosen so that the sugar is only partially utilized in the first, with fermentation completed in the second. Ethanol inhibition is reduced in the first fermentor, allowing […]

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Future Lines

Research in most of the nonedible oil crops previously mentioned has been insufficient. To determine the viability of their use as a source of biodiesel and to optimize the transesterification as well as engine per­formance, more research is needed. But, there are also other nonedible and low-cost edible oily crops and trees that could be exploited for biodiesel production. Amongst […]

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Alcohol-diesel fuel solution

This method is the easiest but requires anhydrous ethanol, because methanol has limited solubility. A maximum of 10% diesel can be sub­stituted due to the lower solubility of methanol in diesel. No component changes; only adjustments of injection timing and fuel volume delivery are required to restore full power. Dodecanol is an effective surfactant for methanol-diesel fuel blends. Straight-run gasoline […]

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Fuel Cell System

A fuel cell power system requires the integration of many components. The fuel cell produces only dc power and utilizes only certain processed fuels. Besides the fuel cell stack, various components are incorporated in a fuel cell system. A fuel processor is required to allow operation with conventional fuels; a power conditioner is used to tie fuel cells into the […]

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