Category Archives: ABOUT THE AUTHOR

MUNICIPAL WASTES

There are basically two types of municipal waste that offer opportunities for combined waste disposal and energy recovery—municipal solid waste (MSW, urban refuse, garbage) and biosolids (sewage, sludge). Each has its own distinc­tive set of characteristics as a biomass energy resource.

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Physical Parameters

The moisture content of green biomass can be quite high and can adversely affect the combustion process. If the moisture content is excessive, the combus­tion process may not be self-sustaining and supplemental fuel must be used, which could defeat the objective of producing energy by biomass combustion for captive use or market. High moisture can also cause incomplete combustion, low […]

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Commercial Processes

The processes listed in Table 9.4 that are reported to be used commercially to supply synthesis gas for methanol production are the Lurgi process, the Winkler process, the Koppers-Totzek process, and the Texaco process. Down­stream adjustment and treatment of the raw product gases is required when these processes are used to supply feedstock or cofeedstock to a typical low — […]

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PREFACE

The need for energy and fuels is one of the common threads throughout history and is related to almost everything that man does or wishes to do. Energy, in its many useful forms, is a basic element that influences and limits our standard of living and technological progress. It is clearly an essential support system for all of us. In […]

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Virgin Biomass Production

I. INTRODUCTION The manufacture of synfuels or energy products from virgin biomass requires that suitable quantities of biomass chosen for use as energy crops be grown, harvested, and transported to the end user or conversion plant. For continuous, integrated biomass production and conversion, provision must be made to supply sufficient feedstock to sustain conversion plant operations. Since at least 250,000 […]

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FUTURE ROLE OF WASTE BIOMASS AS AN ENERGY RESOURCE

Waste biomass contributes a substantial amount of energy to primary demand in the United States (see Table 2.9). The energy consumption pattern is similar in many other industrialized countries. The energy potentials and availabilities discussed here for the United States are summarized in Table 5.6. It is evident that additional contributions to primary energy demand can be realized. At least […]

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Mechanisms

Many dehydration, cracking, isomerization, dehydrogenation, aromatization, coking, and condensation reactions and rearrangements occur during pyrolysis. The products are water, carbon oxides, other gases, charcoal, organic com­pounds (which have lower average molecular weights than their immediate precursors), tars, and polymers. When cellulose is slowly heated at about 250 to 270°C, a large quantity of gas is produced consisting chiefly of carbon […]

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Commercial Biomass Gasification

In the 1970s and early 1980s, about 40 companies worldwide offered to build biomass gasification plants for different applications. Since then, many of the smaller companies and some of the larger ones have gone out of business, discontinued biomass gasification projects, or emphasized established biomass combustion technologies. The problems encountered in first-of-a-kind biomass gasification plants and the low prices of […]

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DISTRIBUTION OF RENEWABLE CARBON RESOURCES AND BIOMASS ABUNDANCE

A. Biospheric Carbon Fluxes Most global studies of the transport and distribution of the earth’s carbon eventually lead many analysts to conclude that the continuous exchange of carbon with the atmosphere and the assumptions and extrapolations that must be employed make it next to impossible to eliminate large errors in the results and uncertainty in the conclusions. Only a very […]

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