Category Archives: Fertilization

Importance of Context

The domestic political economy influences the degree to which social sustainability can be implemented. As seen in the case of land grabs, which are often done for biomass production for fuels [23, 31, 32], national governments will often make deals that ignore local and customary land rights. Bartley [10] points to several key factors. Firstly, the nature of the relationships […]

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Feller-Bunchers

Feller-bunchers are similar to single grip-harvesters, but have the additional capacity to hold stems while additional felling cuts are made. The development of hydraulic accumulator arms that act like mechanical fingers on the felling head gives these machines the ability to hold one or more stems in place while a second or third is cut. Furthermore, this gives feller-bunchers the […]

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Thermal Pretreatments

Among thermal pretreatment options, torrefaction, or pyrolysis of biomass in the 200- 300°C temperature range, is closest to widespread commercial use [8]. Torrefaction produces a devolitalized, hydrophobic, high-carbon content product often referred to as torrefied wood. Several characteristics of torrefied wood make it more efficient to transport and store than untreated biomass, including lower water and oxygen content, higher energy […]

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Water Quantity and Quality

Large scale expansion of crop production for bioenergy would lead to a large increase in the amount of transpired water that is used for human purposes, perhaps equaling the present amount used by the end of the twenty-first century [29]. Globally, commercial bioenergy production is projected to consume 18-46% of the current agricultural use of water by the year 2050 […]

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Perennial and Multiseason Crops

Costs and revenues for perennial and multiseason crops occur over several seasons so addi­tional calculations are needed to represent annual costs and returns. A separate enterprise budget is prepared for the establishment period of the crop. The establishment period may be one or more seasons, during which the crop is planted and allowed to grow to sufficient maturity that harvesting […]

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Roundtables

Roundtables are a type of multistakeholder partnership for sustainability standard-setting that has gained prominence in recent years. As a specific form of private governance, such collaborations focus on improving sustainability within one specific commodity chain or sector. As with other multistakeholder partnerships, roundtables include actors from

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