Category Archives: Fertilization

Roundtable on Sustainable Biofuels

Of the 12 Principles of the Roundtable for Sustainable Biofuels, six are clearly social (Legality, Planning, monitoring and continuous improvement, Human and labor rights, Local food security, and Land rights), while parts of the other criteria include social justice aspects. For example, small feedstock producers are exempt from greenhouse gas emis­sions, Criterion 3c. Biofuels’ contribution to climate change mitigation shall […]

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Harvesting and Processing Systems and Equipment

There are a variety of harvesting systems in use in conventional forestry and short-rotation woody crop operations. This section describes the equipment used in conventional sawlog production operations from which thinning or logging residues may be derived, as well as short-rotation woody crop production equipment. When evaluating these equipment options working in sequence in biomass operations, the convention for establishing […]

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Identifying and Addressing Risks

At its core, the primary challenge with commercializing energy crop production for bioen­ergy is minimizing risk. This includes risk to the producer, risk to the biomass conversion facility developer, and risk to the institution(s) financing the project. Understanding and mitigating these risks are a part of the commercialization process. There are three primary areas of risk with energy crop commercialization. […]

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Pretreatment

14.8.1 Mechanical and Chemical Pretreatments Communition of woody biomass through chipping, grinding and shredding increases its bulk density, which improves transportation efficiency by allowing trucks to carry heavier payloads. Such processing also improves handling and storage by reducing particle size and increasing homogeneity, allowing material to be more efficiently handled by loaders, conveyors and other equipment. In the context of […]

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Soil Properties

Conversion of cropland to WSG such as switchgrass can increase infiltration and improve soil structure over time with measurable changes generally taking place over 6-15 years [13,14]. Changes in soil hydraulic properties under warm season bioenergy grasses will depend on grass species, soil type, climate, and management [7]. In a study of both hybrid poplar plantations and switchgrass plantings in […]

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Summary

The key decision points for the design of a logistics system for a bioenergy plant operating 24/7 year-round are summarized as follows: 1. A complete logistics system is defined as one that begins with the biomass standing in the field and ends with a stream of size-reduced material entering a bioenergy plant for 24/7 operation. Optimizing one unit operation in […]

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Crop Enterprise Budgets

A widely used tool for evaluating the potential costs, revenues, and profit from crop production is the enterprise budget. Crop enterprise budgets are typically customized to local production conditions. The Ag Risk and Farm Management Library [1] provides links to a variety of enterprise budgets and most United States state agricultural extension services have sample crop budgets available [2]. Budgets […]

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