Category Archives: Cellulosic Energy Cropping Systems

Alkali Metal Content

During thermochemical conversion, alkali metals (Na, K, Mg, P, Ca) present in the ash react with silica — originating both from the biomass itself and from soil introduced dur­ing harvesting — to produce a sticky, mobile liquid phase that can contribute to slag­ging, deposition, and corrosion of process equipment. As noted above, water leaching and fuel additives can be used […]

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The study of pyrolysis is gaining increasing importance, as it is not only an independent process but is also a first step in the gasification or combustion process. Pyrolysis refers to the thermal decomposition of biomass and organic compounds in the absence of oxygen to produce biochar, oil and/or gas, depending on the temperature and reaction time. In slow pyrolysis […]

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Integrated Biorefineries

Integrated biorefineries combine an assortment of existing technologies including those discussed earlier and other novel ones to convert biomass into biofuels, high-value bio­products, as well as heat and power. The idea behind an integrated biorefinery is to be able to produce a variety of high-value products as efficiently as the current petrochemical industry. Within the integrated biorefinery, heat and electricity […]

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The Case for Cellulosic Energy Crops

With ever-increasing indications that resource use is exceeding the planet’s biocapacity [33] — largely driven by non-renewable fossil fuel consumption — it is clear that humankind must shift to sustainable practices in order for a peaceful, equitable, and thriving future to be possible. Furthermore, given mounting evidence of climate change — to the point that some say we are now […]

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Gasification is a process that converts organic or fossil based carbonaceous materials into carbon monoxide, hydrogen, carbon dioxide and methane. This is achieved by reacting the material at high temperatures (>700°C), without combustion, with a controlled amount of oxygen and/or steam. The gasification processes may be distinguished according to the gasification agent used. When biomass is heated with no oxygen […]

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There are a variety of technologies for the production of heat and electricity from biomass, including combustion, gasification, pyrolysis, hydrothermal liquefaction, and anaerobic digestion. Additionally, these technologies can be combined in the idea of the integrated biorefinery to produce electricity, heat, biofuels, and bioproducts. The main benefit to using these technologies is the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions, but there […]

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