Category Archives: BIOMASS — DETECTION, PRODUCTION AND USAGE

Materials and methods

1.1 Equipment Determination of the relative impact of various significant bioprocess parameters that influence traditional batch propagation of kefir grains and daily kefir grain increase mass using the Taguchi design methodology requires the performance of a series of experiments. In order to ensure the highest quality as well as repeatability of raw experimental data, it is desired to perform those […]

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Advantages and challenges

As already stated, MBRs represent an important technical option for wastewater treatment and reuse, being very compact and efficient systems for separation of suspended and colloidal matter and enabling high quality, disinfected effluents to be achieved. A key advantage of these MBR systems is complete biomass retention in the aerobic reactor, which decouples the sludge retention time (SRT) from the […]

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FAAS determination (flame atomic absorption spectrometry) and ET-AAS (atomic absorption spectrometry with electrothermic atomization)

Determination of metals (Ca, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn and Zn) content was performed with flame atomic absorption spectrometry (F-AAS) by calibration curve method. Atomization of samples proceeded in the flame acetylene/air; rate of injection of samples into the flame was 4.5 mL min-1. Wavelengths used for the metals determination were 422.7, 285.2, 766.5, 213.9, 324.8, 279.5 and 248.3 nm […]

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An overview of environmental pollution

Many elements play a double role in the physiology of living organisms; some are indispensable, while most of them are toxic at elevated concentrations. The concern on the potential toxic effects of metal ions has been increasing in recent years. As a result of industrial activities and technological development, heavy metals released into the environment pose a significant threat to […]

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Low water requirement

In the semiarid regions, water and salinity stresses are increasingly becoming primary limiting environmental conditions which restrict successful establishment of crops. Sorghum is tolerant of low input levels and essentially for areas that receive too little rainfall for most other grains (Table 7). Increased demand for limited fresh water supplies, increasing use of marginal farmland, and global climatic trends, all […]

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Membrane fouling characterisation: TMP profiles

As noted in the experimental procedure, all stages were performed using the same sequence of filtration and relaxation (450 s and 30 s, respectively). The experimental period was divided into five phases, each one operated at constant permeate flux. Membrane fouling was followed by measuring transmembrane pressure (TMP) evolution with operation time (Figure 11). Each phase finished when a pre-established […]

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Chemical treatment of sorbent surface

The contribution of each functional group can be evaluated by chemical treatment. It consists in carrying out chemical reactions that selectively block different functional groups on the sorbent surface. The most common chemical modifications are esterification of carboxylic and phosphate groups, methylation of amines, and modification of mercapto groups. Carboxylic groups can be alkylated by reaction with methanol or ethanol […]

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