Analysis of the liquid phase. Extracellular polymeric substances

Extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) can be differentiated into two main types: bound EPS, which form the structure of the floc, and soluble EPS (often named soluble microbial products), which are soluble or colloidal form in the liquid medium. Recent studies have shown that the soluble and colloidal fraction plays an important role in membrane fouling (Drews, 2010). Their principle components […]

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The isoprenoid pathway

Isoprenoids occur in all eukaryotes. Despite the astonishing diversity of isprenoid molecules that are produced, there is a great deal of similarity in the mechanisms by which different species synthesize them. In fact, the initial phase of isoprenoid synthesis (the synthesis of isopentenyl pyrophosphate) appears to be identical in all of the species in which this process has been investigated. […]

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Potentiometric titrations

Potentiometric titrations measure the acid-base properties of the sorbent and the ionic exchange properties with regard to H+ and OH — ions. The presence of acid and basic sites determines the sorbent amphoteric properties and, depending on the pH, the functional groups can be either protonated or deprotonated. Active site concentrations are generally determined by acid-base potentiometric titration of the […]

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Production of red yeast biomass with accumulated metals

Heavy metals are natural components of the Earth’s crust. As trace elements, some heavy metals (e. g., copper, selenium, zinc) are essential to maintain the metabolism of the human body. However, at higher concentrations they can lead to poisoning. A special case of antioxidant/prooxidant behavior of carotenoids emerge in the presence of metals (e. g. metal-induced lipid peroxidation). In this […]

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Immersion test

The immersion test was conducted in an agricultural drainage canal (at point 1 in Fig. 4) where reddish-brown sediment accumulated, and sheathed bacteria (Leptothrix spp.) were found to be abundant (Fig. 6). The test was performed during the irrigation period for paddy fields (from May to September 2009) and the non-irrigation period (from October 2009 to April 2010), because the […]

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Savoriness of potato tubers

Statistical analysis revealed significant effects of intercrop fertilization and interaction between intercrop fertilization and straw fertilization on savoriness of potato tubers (table17). Intercrop fertilization improved the savoriness of potato tubers in comparison with savoriness of potato tubers harvested from control object. The best savoriness had potato tubers fertilized with white clover, the mixture of white clover with Italian ryegrass, and […]

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