Category Archives: Liquid Biofuels: Emergence, Development and

Discussion and Concluding Remarks

Production costs associated with biofuels are, in general, very high, with Brazilian bioethanol production being the exception. The gap between high costs of biofuel production and relatively low petroleum prices creates large deadweight costs that may overwhelm any external benefits. de Gorter and Just (2009a, 2010) have shown that policies favouring biofuel production, i. e. tax credits, generate what they […]

Read more

Extraction of Algae Oil

The common techniques for oil extraction are mechanical pressing, the usage solvents, and supercritical fluid extraction. Each of these different methods pre­sents its own advantages and disadvantages. The first oil extraction method can be divided into expression and ultrasonic-assisted extraction and the efficiency nor­mally ranges from 70 to 75 % (Rengel 2008). The main drawback of this method is that […]

Read more

Environmental Impacts of Biofuels: The GHG Emissions Saving

One of the aims for the utilization of biofuels is the climate change mitigation through the reduction of GHG emissions in the transport sector. Measuring the con­sequences of biofuels requires consideration of their full life cycle, from biomass pro­duction and its use of various inputs to the conversion of feedstocks into liquid fuels and the subsequent use of the biofuels […]

Read more

PNPB: Social Arrangements Undertaken Regarding Palm Oil

According to the respondents consulted in this study, the social projects related to PNPB’s palm oil production are considered pilot studies. To date, these have been implemented by a single company. The Agropalma Group operates in agribusi­ness since 1982 and is the largest and most modern agro-industrial palm produc­tion and palm oil processing complex in the country. In order to […]

Read more

Technical Barriers to Advanced Liquid Biofuels Production via Biochemical Route

Biswarup Sen Abstract In the past decades, the ‘food versus fuel’ debate has caused a transition of first-generation biofuels to advanced biofuels. Although the later seems quite promising, due to its sustainability and low GHG emissions qualities, it is still far from deployment. The major hurdles to the deployment of advanced biofuels include technical and economic challenges, which must be […]

Read more

Synthesis and Acidity Enhancement of SBA-15

SBA-15 molecular sieve was prepared according to a procedure reported by Ooi and Bhatia (2007). In 300 mL of deionized water and 40 mL of hydrochloric acid (37 %) for 1 h at 323 K, 9.8 g of triblock copolymer poly(ethylene oxide)- poly(propylene oxide)-poly(ethylene oxide) (average molecular weight = 5,800) was dissolved with stirring. Next, 21.7 g of tetraethylorthosilicate was […]

Read more

The Biofuel Industry Concentration in Brazil Between 2005 and 2012

Everton Anger Cavalheiro Abstract Biofuel has come up as an important alternative to diversifying the global energy matrix, with economic, social, and environmental impact. Currently, Brazil is the main supplier and one of the top consumers of biofuels in the world, and has prioritized the use of soy as a raw material for the biofuel industry, as well as the […]

Read more

Terminology

Before delving into the issues signalled above, it will be necessary to devote some attention to definitions. For example, the various types of biofuel will need to be explained, together with the crops normally employed in their respective production, for this has significant impacts on their sustainability credentials. Attention also needs to be paid to what sort of biomass is […]

Read more
1 2 3 4 5 52