Category Archives: Liquid Biofuels: Emergence, Development and

Degradation of High-Density Polyethylene into Liquid Fuels Using Microporous and Mesoporous Catalysts

Ahmad Zuhairi Abdullah, Shazia Sultana, Steven Lim and Mushtaq Ahmad Abstract The potential application of acidic HZSM-5 and AlSBA-15 materials for catalytic degradation of high-density polyethylene (HDPE) into liquid hydrocarbon fuels was investigated using a tubular batch reactor. The reaction was carried out at various catalyst loadings between 5 and 15 % with 1:1, 2:1, and 3:1 HZSM-5 to AlSBA-15 […]

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Concluding Remarks

As highlighted in the previous chapters, the different technological, economic, and social conditions around the world have led to diverse paths being taken in the pro­duction of fuels from renewable sources. In its essence, the production of energy from biomass of agricultural origin presents the challenge of integrating three impor­tant facets. One facet represents the energy needs of society, a […]

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Economic Issues Relating to Rural Development

Biofuels have often been seen as a way to enhance the agricultural sector. This is especially the case in the developed world, where locally produced food crops find it increasingly difficult to compete at a global level because developing and underde­veloped nations produce the same at a much lower cost. In these cases, governments provide considerable subsidies, promote low-interest loans […]

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Theoretical Background

When production costs are analysed, scale economies and technological learning play an essential role (de Wit et al. 2010). A commonly used concept to meas­ure and quantify effects of technological learning implies fixed percentage cost declines every time when the cumulative production doubles. This concept is called the experience curve approach (Hettinga et al. 2009) and has been imple­mented in […]

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