Category Archives: BIOFUELS


All plants fix carbon dioxide during photosynthesis, which is released again when the plant dies and the plant material is degraded by microorganisms. The carbon dioxide fixed is used to synthesize storage compounds such as starch and oils, and cellular struc­tural components such as cellulose and lignin. It is the structural components that are the slowest to degrade when the […]

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Fischer-Tropsch process

Figure 7.3 gives an overall view of the methods that can be used to produce biofuels from coal and biomass, and Table 7.2 gives the maximum concentration of impurities that syngas should have in order to be suitable for FT synthesis. Too high a concen­tration of impurities will poison the cobalt catalyst in the process.

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Fuels from biomass

Both diesel and petrol replacements can be produced from biomass and waste organic materials by gasification followed by FT synthesis. This process yields a mixture of Fig. 8.26. The percentage of agricultural land required to produce 5, 20 and 100% of UK diesel using biodiesel, FT diesel and microalgae. The UK’s agricultural land is 18,016,981 ha (18 Mha) and the […]

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Biological Solid Fuels

The Nature of Biofuels: First-, Second — and Third-generation Biofuels The alternative energy sources are derived from biological material and it is these sources that are the main focus of the book. Recently the use of biological materials to provide a source of energy that is renewable and can mitigate carbon dioxide accu­mulation has attracted considerable attention (Chum and Overend, […]

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Ethanol and ethanol-petrol blends are not new as fuels for the internal combustion engine, since these fuels were proposed in the late 1800s by early car manufacturers. Henry Ford once described ethanol as the ‘fuel for the future’. During the First and Second World Wars, ethanol was mixed with petrol in order to preserve oil stocks. After the First World […]

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