Category Archives: BIOFUELS

ETHANOL AS A FIRST-GENERATION

BIOFUEL: PRESENT STATUS AND FUTURE PROSPECTS The developments of sugar-derived ethanol as a major transportation fuel in Brazil and corn-derived ethanol as a niche (but rapidly growing) market in the United States were conditioned by different mixes of economic and environmental imperatives from the early 1970s to the present day. Together and separately, they have been criticized as unsuitable for […]

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Hemicellulases in the Processing of Lignocellulosic Biomass

The importance of including hemicellulosic sugars in the conversion of lignocellulosic feedstocks to ethanol to ensure process efficiency and an economic base for biofuel production has often been emphasized.134135 Given that hemicellulosic sugars constitute a fermentable resource equal to approximately 50% of the glucose residues present in the cellulose in most plant species (table 1.5), this is an unsurprising conclusion.

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Chemistry, Biochemistry, and Microbiology of Lignocellulosic Biomass

2.1 BIOMASS AS AN ENERGY SOURCE: TRADITIONAL AND MODERN VIEWS Biomass energy in its traditional sense is vegetation (mostly woody plants but also sun-dried grasses) and, extrapolating further up the food chain, animal manure, combusted as a direct source of heat for cooking and heating. For commercial purposes, wood was also the major energy substrate before the rapid development of […]

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