Category Archives: BIOFUELS

Sequestration of Carbon Dioxide

One method of reducing or stabilizing atmospheric carbon dioxide levels is to trap and lock away carbon dioxide produced by the large carbon dioxide emitters such as power generation and cement works (Fig. 3.10). It is clear that electricity generation, particularly using coal, is the largest stationary source of carbon dioxide, followed by cement production and refineries.

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Use of Biogas as a Transport Fuel

The gas produced by anaerobic digestion of wastes consists mainly of methane (50-75%) and smaller amounts of carbon dioxide and hydrogen, and has an energy content of 20-25 MJ/kg, less than that of 100% methane which has energy content of 50.2 MJ/kg (Table 5.2). However, this is sufficient energy to be used in boilers and engines but if it is […]

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Liquid Biofuels to Replace Diesel

Introduction Both transport and industry rely heavily on the diesel engine that is widely used to power lorries, trains, tractors, ships, pumps and generators. The USA uses 50 billion gallons (1 gallon = 3.8 l) annually (Louwrier, 1998) and the consumption in the UK was 23.9 million t (106) in 2006 (IEA, 2008). The engine designed by Diesel ran for […]

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Energy Storage

The demand for electricity varies daily and seasonally and therefore some centralized power stations may only be required for short periods or to operate at limited capacity. In general, a fully interconnected electricity network will use low-cost, very large power stations for the base load and more expensive units for peak loads. The fossil fuels used for either base load […]

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Liquid Biofuels to Replace Petrol

Introduction Oil makes up 35% of the world’s primary energy supply and the majority of this oil is used to produce the transport fuels petrol, diesel and kerosene. If biofuels are to be used to replace the liquid fuel produced from oil, the scale of the replacement needs to be appreciated. The world used in 2005 about 1900 Mtoe oil […]

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Reduction in lignin

Forest trees are not just sources of building material and paper pulp but are also sys­tems for carbon dioxide sequestration and a source of biofuel. It is proposed that genetic manipulation could increase carbon partition to woody tissues, and increasing cellulose availability for digestion. Lignin content can be changed by modification of gene expression (Groover, 2007). Plant material having less […]

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Potential biomass use in the UK

In the UK, the total energy consumption in 2006 was 232 Mtoe with the consumption of gas at 89.2 Mtoe and coal 43.4 Mtoe (Fig. 1.4). Both gas and coal are used to gener­ate electricity and it is these two fuels that biomass may replace. An estimate of the possible biomass available in the UK is given in Table 4.8. […]

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Lignocellulose

Lignocellulose consists of three polymer types, cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin, which are the main constituents of plant cell walls (Fig. 6.4). The primary cell wall consists of cellulose fibres embedded in a polysaccharide matrix of hemicellulose and pectin. Cellulose is the most abundant plant compound and the second most abundant is lignin which provides mechanical support and protection in plants. […]

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