Category Archives: Biofuels and Bioenergy

Summary

The use of a mixed feedstock in combustion, pyrolysis, gasification, plasma technology, liquefaction, and supercritical technology is becoming more and more prevalent and popular. Going forward, there are, however, sev­eral issues that need to be addressed to make the use of mixed feedstock in each of these technologies more economical, environmentally accept­able, and technologically feasible. Some of these issues are […]

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Gasification and Pyrolysis

Process configuration is more important and more complex for gasification and pyrolysis than combustion because the products are used for down­stream upgrading as well as power generation. Process configuration has many options [6]: (a) gasify both coal and biomass together in the same gas­ifier and have a unified downstream operation, (b) gasify both coal and bio­mass in separate gasifiers and […]

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Future of Mixed Feedstock

Currently, the entire energy industry is striving for more alternate, eco­nomical, and environmentally friendly options. The industry is divided into three parts. Old fossil energy relies on the energy sources coming from the ground. The use of this energy source releases carbon to the atmosphere which is becoming more and more unacceptable due to its impact on the environment. Although […]

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Plasma Technology

In principle, plasma technology process options are the same as those described above for gasification. Because plasma technology is used either for heat and electricity generation as well as for fuels and chemical produc­tion, it is more analogous to the gasification or pyrolysis process than a com­bustion process. The use of a mixed feedstock is very prevalent in plasma technology. […]

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Algae Oil Extraction of Straight Vegetable Oil

2.1.2 Introduction Despite the ever-escalating price for petroleum products and rapidly grow­ing concerns regarding carbon dioxide emissions, the world still remains heavily dependent upon fossil fuels. The 2011 International Energy Outlook [16] predicts by its Reference Case Scenario that the total world consumption of marketed energy will increase by roughly 42% by 2035 from 2010 with an increase in liquid […]

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Autohydrolysis Steam Explosion

A typical autohydrolysis process [48] uses compressed liquid hot water at a temperature of about 200°C under a pressure that is higher than the saturation pressure, thus keeping the hot water in liquid phase, to hydro­lyze hemicellulose in minutes. Hemicellulose recovery is usually high, and unlike the acid-catalyzed process, no catalyst is needed. The process is represented as shown in […]

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Tar Formation

Tar is neither a chemical name for certain molecular species, nor a clearly defined terminology in materials. Tar has been operationally defined in gas­ification work as the material in the product stream that is condensable in the gasifier or in downstream processing steps or subsequent conversion devices and parts [45]. This physical definition is inevitably dependent upon the types of […]

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Gasification Technologies

Over the last several decades most investigations on mixed feedstock were carried out for gasification technologies. This is because gasification technol­ogy in its different formats (i. e., combustion, pyrolysis, gasification, plasma technology, supercritical gasification, etc.) is very versatile and capable of generating heat and electricity as well as fuels, chemicals, and materials.

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Series Preface

Green Chemistry and Chemical Engineering A Book Series by CRC Press/Taylor & Francis The subjects and disciplines of chemistry and chemical engineering have encountered a new landmark in the way of thinking about, developing, and designing chemical products and processes. This revolutionary philosophy, termed green chemistry and chemical engineering, focuses on the designs of products and processes that are conducive […]

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