Category Archives: Biofuels and Bioenergy

Torrefaction

Traditionally, torrefaction is a thermal process for roasting biomass operated at 200° to 300° and for a relatively long residence time (30 to 60 minutes) under an inert atmospheric condition. The name torrefaction is adapted from the process used to roast coffee beans, which is performed at lower temperatures

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Solvent Extraction of Algae Oil

Algal oil can be extracted from microalgae using an effective chemical sol­vent [35]. Hexane, cyclohexane, benzene, ether, acetone, and chloroform have proven to be effective in oil extraction of microalgae paste [36]. Among these, hexane has long been used as an oil extraction solvent in the food industry and is relatively inexpensive. A chemical method is usually faster in terms […]

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Wet Milling Corn Ethanol Technology

For the past two centuries in the United States, corn refiners have been devel­oping, improving, and perfecting the process of separating corn into its com­ponent parts to create a variety of value-added corn products and by-products. The corn wet milling process separates corn into its four basic components, viz., starch, germ, fiber, and protein. There are eight basic steps involved […]

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Grate Incinerators

About 90% of incinerators treating MSW use grate incinerators because of their simplicity and ability to handle a wide range of waste particle sizes. Grate incinerators are also used for commercial and industrial nonhazard­ous waste. This type of incinerator contains (a) a waste feeder unit, (b) incin­erator grate on which waste materials are placed, (c) incinerator chamber, (d) incinerator air […]

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Product Purification and Separation

A significant cost factor comes from product purification of a biofuel prod­uct. Even if a highly selective chemical transformation process is adopted, the nonuniform and heterogeneous nature of biomass feedstock invariably produces products of a broad spectrum of chemical species, targeted ver­sus nontargeted, or desired versus not desired. The unwanted species in the product composition include source-specific and treatment-specific ingredi­ents […]

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Fermentation Ethanol

Fermentation, one of the oldest chemical processes known to humans and most widely practiced by them, is used to produce a variety of useful prod­ucts and chemicals. In recent years, however, many of the products that can be made by fermentation are also synthesized from petroleum feedstock, often at lower cost or more selectively. It is also true that modern […]

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Analysis and Composition of Biomass

5.1.2 Similarities and Differences between Biomass and Coal as Feedstock Even though biomass gasification has long been practiced on a variety of scales with and without modern scientific understanding, the subject itself has greatly benefited from the coal science and technology which has been studied far more in depth [15]. Most of the scientific tools developed for and applicable to […]

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6.5.Є.2 Supercritical Extraction

In addition to water, carbon dioxide and alcohols have been used for super­critical extraction. The use of supercritical carbon dioxide to extract oil from coal, tar, and various crops or crop waste has been extensively studied [101­105]. These studies have shown that supercritical carbon dioxide can be very effective in extracting certain types of chemicals from various carbohydrates, lignin, and […]

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