Category Archives: Biofuels and Bioenergy

Nuon Power Buggenum BV-Willem-Alexander Centrale (WAC)-250 MWe IGCC Plant

A commercial-scale gasification plant using mixed feedstock of biomass and coal has been demonstrated at the 253 MWe Nuon Power Plant in Buggenum, the Netherlands [6]. The plant was built in 1993, and it uses biomass to reduce CO2 emissions based on dry feed Shell gasification technology. The Shell gasifier is an oxygen-blown continuous slagging, entrained flow reactor. The plant […]

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250 MWe IGCC Plant of Tampa Electric’s Polk Power Station

This integrated gasification combined cycle power plant (see Figure 7.3) is operated by Tampa Electric [6]. In 2001/2002, the plant used about 1.5 wt% woody biomass harvested from a five-year-old eucalyptus grove along with coal to test whether biomass can be converted to fuel gas and whether a fuel handling system accommodates this change. The original system was not designed […]

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WPC Plasma Process

Alter NRG’s WPC two-stage plasma process [114] (described in the previ­ous chapter) has been used to build plants of various sizes in the United States, Canada, and Japan. Table 7.12 depicts basic descriptions of some of these plants. This technology provides clean fuel (toxin free) from a vari­ety of mixed feedstock. The basic description of the process is described in […]

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Liquefaction Technologies

Unlike gasification technologies, liquefaction technologies are more at the developmental stage. For both coal and biomass there are direct and indirect methods for producing liquid products. The indirect methods are based on the use of a syngas platform from which liquid fuels and methanol can be pro­duced using Fischer-Tropsch syntheses employing different types of catalyst. Both biosyngas and petroleum — […]

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Direct Liquefaction

Direct liquefaction of coal has been carried out in a hydrogen donor solvent at a temperature between 350-450°C, pressure between 2,000-5,000 psig, and in the presence of a hydrogenation catalyst along with hydrogen or another suitable reducing agent (such as carbon monoxide). During the 1970s and 1980s, significant research on direct coal liquefaction was carried out and this was summarized […]

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Hydroliquefaction

Water, particularly at high temperature and pressure is a good solvent for both biomass and coal [124-131]. For biomass, as described in the previous chapter, between temperatures of about 180-280°C, hydrothermal carbonization occurs which produces a heavy biocrude. For temperatures close to the critical tem­perature, hydrothermal liquefaction occurs producing a higher quality crude and this can be further upgraded with […]

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Pyrolysis

Just as with direct co-liquefaction, in recent years significant attention to co-pyrolysis of a variety of mixed feedstock has been given. Some of these studies have been focused on low-severity (low residence time as with fast pyrolysis) conditions to produce more oil and these are summarized in Table 7.13. Although the studies have examined a wide range of feedstock and […]

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Solids Handling

As mentioned before, the co-firing of coal and biomass creates problems for the use of mixed ash that contains fly ash as well as inorganic materials. Coal ash is used in the construction industries and biomass ash is used in the fer­tilizer industry. The ash content of a feedstock (biomass) has a major impact on gasifier operation. This type of […]

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Process Configurations for Gasification Technologies

Mixed feedstock process options for gasification technology depend on the nature of the technology. 7.4.4.1 Combustion There are basically three process configurations for co-combusting coal and biomass [1]. The most popular option is direct co-firing where biomass and coal are fed together in the same combustor. This is because with this method an existing coal power plant can be converted […]

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