Category Archives: Advanced Biofuels and Bioproducts

Polysaccharides and Dietary Fibers

Algae contain large amounts of polysaccharides, notably cell wall structural poly­saccharides that are extruded by the hydrocolloid industry: alginate from brown algae, carrageenans, and agar from red algae. Edible algae contain 33-50% total fibers, which is higher than the levels found in higher plants. Other minor polysac­charides are found in the cell wall: fucoidans (from brown algae), xylans (from certain […]

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Gas Production Strategies

3.1 Classification of Gas Hydrate Deposits Natural GH accumulations are divided into three main classes [124] based on sim­ple geologic features and the initial reservoir conditions. Class 1 deposits are com­posed of two layers: the HBL and an underlying two-phase fluid zone containing mobile gas and liquid water [129, 125] . Class 2 deposits comprise two zones: an HBL, overlying […]

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Challenges and Opportunities

The Electrofuels approach to biofuels represents a significant departure from photo­synthetic strategies, and it is important to consider both the merits and challenges inherent to a system built around a chemolithoautotrophic platform. Here, we con­sider the relative advantages and disadvantages of an Electrofuels vs. a photosyn­thetic approach for each of the important drivers of the system, specifically the required resources […]

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Reactor Tubing

The solar receiver tubing must have a specified length so that photosynthetic growth can be optimised. It has been shown that the maximum tube length relies on three parameters: liquid velocity, dissolved oxygen concentration and the rate of oxygen production by photosynthesis. Generally, a tube run in a photobioreactor should not surpass 80 m. However, the maximum length of tubing […]

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Chlorophyll Extraction

3.1.1 Organic Solvent Extraction Intracellular chlorophyll has traditionally been extracted from microalgal biomass using organic solvents [49]. The extraction process involves the organic solvent molecules penetrating through the cell membrane and dissolving the lipids as well as the lipoproteins of chloroplast membranes. Parameters which affect the yield of chlorophyll extraction by organic solvents include polarity of the organic solvents, storage […]

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Heterokont (Brown Algae, Yellow-Green Algae, Golden Algae, Diatoms, and Others)

Heterokonts are a large and very diverse group of algae identified relatively recently that possess similar morphology, photosynthetic pigments, ultrastructural features, and genetic code [50, 51] . Several Heterokont groups of algae correspond to for­merly distinct phylum, the Chrysophyta and Phaeophyta. The species are wide­spread in brackish water, freshwater, marine and terrestrial habitats. And chlorophyll a and c are the […]

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