Category Archives: Advanced Biofuels and Bioproducts

Valorization of Waste Frying Oils and Animal Fats for Biodiesel Production

Teresa M. Mata, Antonio A. Martins, and Nidia S. Caetano Abstract The increased demand for biodiesel and the difficulties in obtaining enough quantities of raw materials for its production are stimulating the search for alternative feedstocks. Among the various possibilities, the utilization of residual fatty materials, in particular waste frying oils and animal fat residues from the meat and fish […]

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Design of Algal Dewatering Systems

For design purposes, a basis of 50% weight by volume (w/v) of biomass is used as the minimum requirement from the dewatering stage. The design outlines the best dewatering configuration in terms of energy consumption and economics. It is assumed that the initial cultivation within the bioreactors will be staggered so that dewatering equipment costs can be reduced. The staggering […]

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Ecological Consequences

A number of common metrics to describe ecological consequences are included in most LCAs. The most common example is global warming potential (GWP) which normalizes greenhouse gas emissions into one number with units of mass emissions in carbon dioxide equivalents. Since several chemicals typically contribute to specific ecological impacts, metrics are very useful for consolidating data. Other examples of common […]

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Phaeophyceae (Brown Algae)

The specific organic constituents of brown algae are alginic acid, laminarin, mannitol, and fucoidan (Table 11). Among these compounds, mannitol lacks polymeric struc­ture; it is soluble, and can be easily transferred into the cell [139]. Mannitol can be utilized by anaerobic microorganisms with the formation of acetate and hydrogen as the major products, and minor production of ethanol, formate, lactate, […]

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Challenges and Opportunities

The Electrofuels approach to biofuels represents a significant departure from photo­synthetic strategies, and it is important to consider both the merits and challenges inherent to a system built around a chemolithoautotrophic platform. Here, we con­sider the relative advantages and disadvantages of an Electrofuels vs. a photosyn­thetic approach for each of the important drivers of the system, specifically the required resources […]

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Hydrolysis

Microalgal biomass can be pre-treated via hydrolysis using the cellulosic enzymes obtained from fungi, protozoa or bacteria. Widely used cellulosic enzymes are cellu — lase from Thrichoderma reseei and cellulase from Aspergillus niger. The cellulase enzyme consists of three main components [63]; (1) 1,4-b-D-glucan glucanohydro — lases (endoglucanases); break down the cellulose crystallinity, (2) 1,4-b-D-glucan cellobiohydrolases and 1,4-b-D-glucan glucanohydrolases (exoglucanases); […]

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Catalytic Cracking

A variant of thermal cracking is the catalytic cracking, extensively used in the petrochemical industry to produce a significant percentage of the fossil-derived fuel currently used. This possibility has also been pursued for the production of biofuels from a wide variety of feedstocks, especially from low-value triglyceride-based biomass. The reaction takes place in fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) units where triglyceride […]

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