Category Archives: Advanced Biofuels and Bioproducts

Ecological Consequences

A number of common metrics to describe ecological consequences are included in most LCAs. The most common example is global warming potential (GWP) which normalizes greenhouse gas emissions into one number with units of mass emissions in carbon dioxide equivalents. Since several chemicals typically contribute to specific ecological impacts, metrics are very useful for consolidating data. Other examples of common […]

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Phaeophyceae (Brown Algae)

The specific organic constituents of brown algae are alginic acid, laminarin, mannitol, and fucoidan (Table 11). Among these compounds, mannitol lacks polymeric struc­ture; it is soluble, and can be easily transferred into the cell [139]. Mannitol can be utilized by anaerobic microorganisms with the formation of acetate and hydrogen as the major products, and minor production of ethanol, formate, lactate, […]

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Flow Properties

Flow properties of HBS have been investigated because of their importance in understanding the nature and formation of hydrate-bearing reservoirs and gas pro­duction. The main properties that are needed are (a) the formation effective perme­ability keff in the presence of solid phases, (b) the relative permeabilities of the aqueous and gas phases in the (potentially) four-phase system (gas, aqueous, hydrate, […]

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Microbial ElectroCatalytic (MEC) Biofuel Production

Steven W. Singer, Harry R. Beller, Swapnil Chhabra, Christopher J. Chang, and Jerry Adler Abstract We are developing an integrated Microbial-ElectroCatalytic (MEC) system consisting of Ralstonia eutropha as a chemolithoautotrophic host for meta­bolic engineering coupled to a small-molecule electrocatalyst for the production of biofuels from CO2 and H2. R. eutropha is an aerobic bacterium that grows with CO2 as the […]

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Hydrolysis

Microalgal biomass can be pre-treated via hydrolysis using the cellulosic enzymes obtained from fungi, protozoa or bacteria. Widely used cellulosic enzymes are cellu — lase from Thrichoderma reseei and cellulase from Aspergillus niger. The cellulase enzyme consists of three main components [63]; (1) 1,4-b-D-glucan glucanohydro — lases (endoglucanases); break down the cellulose crystallinity, (2) 1,4-b-D-glucan cellobiohydrolases and 1,4-b-D-glucan glucanohydrolases (exoglucanases); […]

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Catalytic Cracking

A variant of thermal cracking is the catalytic cracking, extensively used in the petrochemical industry to produce a significant percentage of the fossil-derived fuel currently used. This possibility has also been pursued for the production of biofuels from a wide variety of feedstocks, especially from low-value triglyceride-based biomass. The reaction takes place in fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) units where triglyceride […]

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Nutrients

1.1.1 Carbon Since S. platensis is composed of approximately 50% carbon [30], the use of carbon dioxide in the cyanobacterium cultivation may contribute significantly to reducing the cost of production and, at the same time, to reducing the emission of this green­house gas. Photosynthetic microorganisms can efficiently assimilate carbon dioxide from different sources, including the atmosphere, industrial exhaust gases, and […]

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