Category Archives: Advanced Biofuels and Bioproducts

Design Considerations for Tubular Reactors

1.3.1 Airlift Pump For the algae to grow optimally, the mass transfer characteristics of the photobiore­actor must be optimised to suit the specific strain of algae. Mass transfer is achieved by pumping compressed air and carbon dioxide into the reactor, thus creating flow through the culture that is dispersed within the solar tubing [22]. It is preferred that the aeration […]

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Carbon Audit and Discussion for Biodiesel Production

For biodiesel production, a transesterification process is used to convert the extracted and purified lipids into FAME. The process involves different unit operations. However, the emission sources can be categorised based on either steam or electric­ity usage. Both emissions are Scope 2. For the modelled facility, 1,834 MJ/year of steam and 470,716.3 kWh/year electricity are required. For this study, it […]

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Chlorophyta (Green Algae)

Chlorophyll a and b are the dominant pigments in Chlorophyta and are the source of the second name of these organisms—Green algae. The secondary pigments are carotenoids (b-carotene, prasinoxanthin, siphonaxanthin, astaxanthin) which some­times give algae their yellowish-green and red-green colors [44]. The major habitat for green algae is freshwater although they are also found in sea or brackish water, and […]

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Integration of Anaerobic Digestion with Other Technological Processes

The high cost of biofuel production and low efficiency of captured energy are major factors that limit the large-scale use of algae for biofuels. The integration of the ADP into the production of other high-value products (e. g., food supplements, phar­maceuticals, and clean water) from algae is likely to make AD economically attrac­tive for biofuel generation.

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Geomechanical Challenges and Well Stability Related to Production from Hydrate Deposits

The geomechanical response of HBS in general, and potential well instability and casing deformation in particular, are serious concerns that need to be addressed and understood before gas production from hydrate deposits can be developed in ear­nest. Deposits that are suitable targets for production often involve poorly consoli­dated sediments that are usually characterized by limited shear strength. The dissociation of […]

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Valorization of Waste Frying Oils and Animal Fats for Biodiesel Production

Teresa M. Mata, Antonio A. Martins, and Nidia S. Caetano Abstract The increased demand for biodiesel and the difficulties in obtaining enough quantities of raw materials for its production are stimulating the search for alternative feedstocks. Among the various possibilities, the utilization of residual fatty materials, in particular waste frying oils and animal fat residues from the meat and fish […]

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Design of Algal Dewatering Systems

For design purposes, a basis of 50% weight by volume (w/v) of biomass is used as the minimum requirement from the dewatering stage. The design outlines the best dewatering configuration in terms of energy consumption and economics. It is assumed that the initial cultivation within the bioreactors will be staggered so that dewatering equipment costs can be reduced. The staggering […]

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