Category Archives: Biomass and Biofuels from Microalgae

Harvesting and Dewatering

Energy-efficient and cost-effective microalgae dewatering, nutrient recycling and effluent water quality control are some of the major challenges facing industrial — scale microalgae production for commodity feeds and fuels (Benemann 2013; Borowitzka and Moheimani 2013b; Wyman and Goodman 1993a). Irrespective of the cultivation system, the biomass concentration of the algae culture is generally low (a few mg L 1 in […]

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Cyclic Photoautotrophic-Heterotrophic Cultures

Depending on the strain and organic carbon source, a major disadvantage of het­erotrophic culture is that light is required for increased productivity. In some strains, for example, lipid productivity is higher under photoautotrophic cultures when compared with heterotrophic cultures. Furthermore, the cost of organic carbon source can be very high, making heterotrophic production of biodiesel oil uneconomical. Solar light energy […]

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Wastewater Treatment Using Immobilized Algae

Wastewater treatment consists of the removal of unwanted chemicals, or biological contaminants from impure water sources, such as from the liquid wastes released by houses, industrial operations, or agricultural processes. Conventional wastewater treatment methods include physical processes such as filtration and sedimentation; chemical processes such as flocculation and chlorination; and biological processes such as generation of activated sludge (Metcalf and […]

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Growth-Inhibiting Substances in Wastewater

Wastewater not only contains nutrients such as N and P, but also a range of other contaminants that may interfere with microalgal growth. The presence of growth — inhibiting substances probably explains why microalgal growth rates in real wastewaters are often slightly lower than in synthetic wastewaters. Contaminants not only pose a problem because they inhibit microalgal growth, but they […]

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Concluding Remarks

The ongoing progress in sequencing of algal genomes will permit annotation, comprehensive cloning and manipulation of genes, which altogether allow omics approaches to generate large-scale experimental datasets. This advancement will aid in identification of key regulators of metabolism and enables the eventual manip­ulation of cellular pathways. Synthetic biology combines the use of molecular tools with knowledge gained from systems level […]

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Microalgae with Heterotrophic Metabolism

Many strains of microalgae are known to grow either heterotrophically or mixo — trophically. They include Haematococcus pluvialis, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, Chlamydomonas globosa, Scenedesmus acutus, Selenastrum capricornutum, Scenedesmus bijuja, Ankistrodesmus sp., and many strains of Chlorella (Salim 2013; Ogbonna et al. 1998; Chojnacka and Marquez-Rocha 2004; Chojinacka and Noworyta 2004; Chen 1996). Growth of cyanobacteria can also be enhanced by mixotrophic […]

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Heterokonts

Heterokont algae are a monophyletic group with chloroplasts containing chloro­phyll a and c and the accessory pigment fucoxanthin which gives the group a golden-brown color. Marine, freshwater, and terrestrial heterokonts are known and range in the form of giant kelp (brown seaweeds), diatoms, Eustigmatophytes, and Chrysophytes. The later three groups have species that are high-lipid producers. Nannochloropsis (Eustigmatophytes) are primarily […]

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Metabolic Network Models

Metabolic models build a characteristic description of the cell’s phenotypic state and give insights into systems’ emergent properties with respect to metabolic functions, adaptability, robustness, and optimality. Moreover, a metabolic model serves as a basis to investigate questions of major biotechnological importance, such as the effects of directed modifications of enzymatic activities to improve a desired property of cellular systems […]

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