Category Archives: Biomass and Biofuels from Microalgae

Open Ponds

Open ponds are the most usual setting for large-scale outdoor microalgae cultiva­tion (Fon Sing et al. 2013; Jeffery and Wright 1999). The major commercial pro­duction of algae is today based on open channels (raceway) which are less expensive, and easier to build and operate compared with closed photobioreactors (Borowitzka 2013b; Tredici and Materassi 1992). In addition, the growth of mic­roalgae […]

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Mixotrophic Cultures

Mixotrophic cultures are culture systems where light and organic carbons are used as the energy source, while inorganic and organic carbons are used as the carbon source. Although it is sometimes used interchangeably with photoheterotrophic culture, in a strict sense, photoheterotrophic culture involves the use of light as the energy source, while organic carbon is used as the carbon source. […]

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Sampling of the Metabolic Solution Space

Genome-scale metabolic networks are often computationally explored to charac­terize functional relationships between their reactions. For instance, identification of correlated reaction sets (cosets), i. e., reactions that are always “on” or “off” con­currently (Papin et al. 2004) can define functional relationships between reactions that are not necessarily in the same pathway or obvious. The significance of these reactions is evident from […]

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Immobilization Techniques and Applied Matrices

Entrapment is one of the most common immobilization methods which consists of capturing the cells in a three-dimensional gel lattice, made of either natural (agar, cellulose, alginate, carrageenan) or synthetic (polyacrylamide, polyurethane, polyvinyl, polypropylene) polymers (de-Bashan and Bashan 2010; Hameed and Ebrahim 2007; Liu et al. 2009). Synthetic polymers are reported to be more stable in wastewater samples than the […]

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Losses of Nutrients from Wastewater

The unique environmental conditions in microalgal cultures may result in signifi­cant losses of nutrients from wastewater. In microalgal cultures, pH is high due to photosynthetic depletion of carbon dioxide (CO2) from the culture medium, and this may result in volatilization of ammonia or precipitation of P. In concentrated wastewaters such as animal manure, N is often present as ammonium. When […]

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DNA Synthesis and Whole Genome Synthesis

In contrast to conventional recombinant DNA techniques, synthetic DNA synthesis can generate nucleotide sequences de novo. In this way, DNA synthesis technology allows for custom design of novel nucleotide sequences. The increased throughput of DNA synthesis now allows entire genetic regions and even small genomes to be derived synthetically (Carr and Church 2009; Gibson et al. 2008). This break­through has […]

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Conclusions and Future Directions

immobilization of cells brings several advantages over current suspension biopro­cessing, such as (1) providing flexibility to the photobioreactor designs; (2) increasing reaction rates arising from higher cell density; (3) enhancing oper­ational stability; (4) avoiding cell washouts; (5) facilitating cultivation and easy harvesting of microorganisms; (6) minimizing the volume of growth medium as the immobilized cellular matter occupies less space; (7) […]

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Haptophyta

The haptophytes, predominately marine phytoplankton, are recognized as a division divided into two classes, Pavlovophyceae and Prymnesiophyceae (Cavalier-Smith 2007) . The chloroplast pigments are similar to those of the heterokonts, and in both divisions, chloroplasts are derived from red algal symbionts (Anderson 2004). Several members of the class Prymnesiophyceae including the Prymnesium (Becker 1994), Isochrysis spp. (Chisti 2007), and the […]

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Microalgal Genome Projects

The nuclear genome of C. reinhardtii was published in 2007 (Merchant et al. 2007) after the first wave of next-generation sequencing (NGS) became commercially available in 2005 (Margulies et al. 2005; Shendure et al. 2005). Nevertheless, the Chlamydomonas genome was sequenced through a conventional shotgun sequencing and assembly pipeline with 13X coverage (Merchant et al. 2007). Following the completion of […]

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