Category Archives: Biomass and Biofuels from Microalgae

Heterotrophic Cultures

Heterotrophic cultures use organic carbons as both sources of energy and carbon. There are many advantages of heterotrophic cultures over photoautotrophic cul­tures. These include the following: (i) the use conventional heterotrophic bioreac­tors that are simpler and easier to scale up, since the elimination of light requirements means that smaller reactor surface-to-volume ratios can be used; (ii) greater control of the […]

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Effective Factors in Flue Gas Bioremediation

Various parameters such as initial cell concentration, input CO2 concentration, aeration rate, photobioreactor design, light intensity and temperature should be taken into account for biofixation of CO2 from flue gases by microalgae. These factors are important when seeking to achieve high-productivity microalgae bio­remediation of CO2 from input gases. In this section, the effect of initial cell concentrations, input CO2 concentration, […]

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Gene Deletion Analysis Tools

A gene deletion experiment and its effect on cellular behavior can be simulated in a manner similar to the linear optimization of growth (or for any other objective function). The results can be used to guide the design of metabolic engineering strategies. Gene-reaction associations in the model describe the relationship between genes and their corresponding reactions; therefore, reactions can be […]

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Application of Various Immobilization Techniques for Algal Bioprocesses

Ela Eroglu, Steven M. Smith and Colin L. Raston Abstract Immobilized cells entrapped within a polymer matrix or attached onto the surface of a solid support have advantages over their free-cell counterpart, with easier harvesting of the biomass, enhanced wastewater treatment, and enriched bioproduct generation. Immobilized microalgae have been used for a diverse number of bio­processes including gaining access to […]

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Bioavailability of Nutrients

When nutrient concentrations are reported for wastewater, total concentrations of nutrients are often reported. Dissolved inorganic nutrients, such nitrate and ammo­nium N and phosphate P are directly available to microalgae. Part of the total N and P in wastewater, however, may be associated with organic molecules (dissolved organic nutrients) or with particulate matter (either organic or inorganic). These nutrients are […]

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Multiplex Automated Genome Engineering

MAGE is a genetic engineering method that relies on recombineering to produce frequent and large scale genetic changes to cells. Simply, it is a cyclical and scalable recombineering system that allows multiple genetic changes in a high throughput manner. A given cycle in MAGE requires cell growth, the introduction of recombineering substrate, and provision of providing synthesized DNA con­structs a […]

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Other Applications

In some studies, more than one culture was immobilized to achieve a multifunctional immobilization matrix. For example, Adlercreutz et al. (1982) co-immobilized mixed cultures of algae (Chlorella pyrenoidosa) and bacteria (Gluconobacter oxy — dans) inside calcium alginate beads for the continuous production of dihydroxyac — etone. They did not observe any significant loss of activity within the first six days […]

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Eukaryotic Microalgae

The morphology, pigments, metabolic capabilities, and cell wall structure of the eukaryotic microalgae are quite diverse because they represent a multitude of phylogenetically distinct groups of organisms. Recent molecular evidence suggests that the “algae” fit into very different evolutionary lineages including those related to plants, fungi, or animals (Lucentinii 2005) via one or more serial endosymbiotic events (Moestrup 2001a, b). […]

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Toward Applications of Genomics and Metabolic Modeling to Improve Algal Biomass Productivity

Kourosh Salehi-Ashtiani, Joseph Koussa, Bushra Saeed Dohai, Amphun Chaiboonchoe, Hong Cai, Kelly A. D. Dougherty, David R. Nelson, Kenan Jijakli and Basel Khraiwesh Abstract Genomic sequencing is the first step in a systems level study of an algal species, and sequencing studies have grown steadily in recent years. Completed sequences can be tied to algal phenotypes at a systems level […]

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