Category Archives: Switchgrass

Improvements in Multiple End-uses

Though government policies can provide the impetus to promote the production and use of lignocellulosic biomass feedstocks, market interests will undoubtedly increase as demonstrated uses go beyond exclusive ethanol production. Prior to its use as a bioenergy crop, switchgrass was utilized as a forage crop noted for its high forage yields (Parrish and Fike 2005). Before widespread efforts at improving […]

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Thermochemical Conversion Technologies

Thermochemical technologies employ high temperature, and use of oxidizing agents or catalysts to break down the biomass polymers into liquid or gaseous fuels. These include combustion, gasification, pyrolysis, liquefaction, and hydrogenation. The most noteworthy difference among these processes is the target products that these processes are used to produce. Heat (or power) is the main direct product of combustion. Gaseous […]

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Steam Explosion

Steam explosion is a physio-chemical pretreatment, performed in a pressurized vessel at 190-270°C for 1-10 minutes at 200-450 psig pressure with sudden release of pressure to cause an "explosion" within the physical structure of the material. A potential drawback includes the processing of lignocellulosic biomass at elevated temperatures resulting in formation of inhibitory compounds that may further inhibit the fermentation […]

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Syngas Conversion into Hydrocarbons

Most common routes available for conversion of syngas into hydrocarbon fuels are Fischer-Tropsch (FT) process, and syngas to methanol to gasoline (MTG). FT conversion of syngas into hydrocarbons is one of the most recognized technologies with first plant operation in Germany in 1938. Currently three plans use the FT process to produce gasoline, diesel and chemicals from coal and natural […]

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Biofuel Production Processes: Enzymatic Hydrolysis Cellulose

Cellulose is a long chain of polyglycans linked by P(1^-4)-glycosidic linkages. The synergetic action of cellulase consists of endoglucanase, exoglucanase (cellobiohydrolases) and p-glucosidase (cellobiase) acting together to depolymerize cellulose into glucose molecules with liberated water molecules. The hydrolysis of cellulose involves three different synergetic stages. The following steps are summarized:

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Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.). as a Bioenergy Crop: Advantages,. Concerns, and Future Prospects

Charles Kwit, h* Madhugiri Nageswara-Raoha andC. Neal Stewart Jr. U2 Introduction Providing food and energy to an ever-increasing world population is arguably the most challenging issue we face today. Exactly how to proceed on the agricultural side of this challenge, in conjunction with worldwide economic growth forecasts, is the subject of intense interest (see Tilman et al. 2011). Indeed, food […]

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Catalytic Vapor Upgrading

Bio-oil upgrading through catalytic vapor cracking removes oxygen from the bio-oil in the forms of CO2, H2O or CO without using external hydrogen. The reactions take place at temperatures of 330-600°C and atmospheric pressure. Solid acid catalysts such as aluminosilicates and zeolite are used for the bio-oil cracking (Park et al. 2011). Atmospheric pressure reaction without the need of external […]

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Crop Modeling

In addition to continuing to collect empirical data, models of switchgrass biomass production are now being used to address many of these questions. Models of bioenergy crops can be split into two distinct types. Correlational or statistical approaches rely on relationships between environmental variables and empirical biomass estimates. In contrast, mechanistic or process-based approaches simulate the actual processes that govern […]

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About the Volume Editors

Hong Luo is a Professor in the Department of Genetics and Biochemistry of Clemson University. He also serves as the Graduate Coordinator for the Clemson Genetics, Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Programs. Dr. Hong Luo received his Ph. D. degree in Molecular Biology at the Catholic University of Louvain in Belgium. His research mainly focuses on plant genomics, gene discovery in […]

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