Category Archives: Alcoholic Fuels


Following the train of components of Figure 2.1 and given the potential options for gasification, gas cleaning and conditioning, synthesis and separation, many routes to produce methanol from biomass can be imagined. The authors have previously analyzed the techno-economic performance of methanol from wood through 6 concepts, which will be recapitulated here. At the end of the section, results will […]

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Genetic modification to improve alfalfa over the past century has increased resistance to several diseases and pests and widened the range of environmental adaptation of the crop by producing varieties that differ in fall dormancy and winter hardiness. Most improvements in forage quality of alfalfa have occurred through changes in harvest management and production practices. Alfalfa pro­duced as feed for […]

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Food Imported into the Northeast

It is extremely important to remember that even during the summer, when farms in the Northeast are at peak production, the Northeast still imports 95% of its food. During the winter, this number increases to 98% (7). As a result, 95-98% of all money spent on food in the Northeast leaves the Northeast, creating a tremendous cash flow out of […]

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Biochemistry of Butanol Production from Corn

Solvent-forming species, including C. acetobutylicum and C. beijerinckii, are mesophilic, growing best between 30° and 40°C. The pH varies during the fermentation and can drop from an initial value of 6.8-7.0 to about 5.0-4.5 (acidogenesis) and can also rise up to 7.0 later in the fermentation (solventoge — nesis). It has been suggested that the switch to solvent production is […]

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The development of modern fuel cells has been driven by the need to generate clean and efficient electrical power for different applications. The first demon­stration of a fuel cell was described by William Grove in 1839. Grove was inspired by the observation that electrolysis of water produces hydrogen and oxygen gas. He ran the process in reverse by feeding oxygen […]

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