Category Archives: Alcoholic Fuels

Economics of Corn Ethanol

Advocates of the corn ethanol industry note that agricultural business and rural economies benefit from ethanol production. Rural economies gain new jobs and an expanded tax base. The local impact of a dry grind facility producing 40 million gallons of ethanol per year is an estimated $56 million spent annually for feedstock (corn), labor, and utilities, and also $1.2 million […]

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Amylolytic Enzymes and Solventogenic Clostridia The solventogenic clostridia, like all clostridia, are Gram positive, spore forming, obligate anaerobes. These bacteria can change to a variety of morphologies during fermentation, with motile rod-shaped cells present during the exponential growth phase and dormant oval-shaped endospores formed when the culture encounters adverse conditions. The maintenance of cellular growth (like other heterotrophic bacteria) and […]

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Nickel — and Cobalt-Based Catalysts

Many studies of ethanol steam reforming have been carried out over nickel-based catalysts, because these are used effectively on an industrial scale for the steam reforming of natural gas and higher hydrocarbons. Different carriers have been studied [7,31-34], a major concern being the catalyst deactivation by carbon deposition. In this context, basic supports give better results, concerning coke formation, than […]

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Gas Conditioning Reforming

The synthesis gas can contain a considerable amount of methane and other light hydrocarbons, representing a significant part of the heating value of the gas. Steam reforming (SMR) converts these compounds to CO and H2 driven by steam addition over a catalyst (usually nickel) at high temperatures (Katofsky 1993). Autothermal reforming (ATR) combines partial oxidation in the first part of […]

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Perstraction is a butanol recovery technique similar to liquid-liquid extraction that seeks to solve some of the problems inherent in liquid-liquid extraction. In a perstraction separation, the fermentation broth and the extractant are separated by a membrane (Qureshi et. al., 1992). The membrane contactor provides a surface area where the two immiscible phases can exchange the butanol. Since there is […]

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Potential Yield

Published results from researchers state that for every pound of fish produced, 50-75 pounds of vegetables are produced (3). Our goal is 35 pounds of vegetables, and each tank has the ability to produce 2200 pounds of fish a week at full capacity (we have room for 2-3 tanks). The project can be duplicated nearly anywhere in the world, and […]

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