Category Archives: Alcoholic Fuels

Dry/Hot Gas Cleaning

In dry/hot gas cleaning, residual contaminations are removed by chemical absor­bents at elevated temperature. In the methanol process, hot gas cleaning has few energy advantages as the methanol reactor operates at 200-300°C, especially when preceding additional compression is required (efficient compression requires a cold inlet gas). However, dry/hot gas cleaning may have lower oper­ational costs than wet gas cleaning (Mitchell […]

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Coproducts from Wet Milling

As stated previously, wet-milling operations have the capacity and flexibility to make more products than a dry-grind ethanol facility, because the individual parts of the kernel are fractionated. Products resulting directly from wet milling are corn oil for cooking, CO2, which may be captured and sold for carbonation of beverages, and corn gluten meal and corn gluten feed, which are […]

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Liquid-Liquid Extraction

Liquid-liquid extraction has been considered an important technique for the recovery of ABE from fermentation broths. Usually, a water-insoluble organic extractant is mixed with the fermentation broth. Butanol is more soluble in the organic (extractant) phase than in the aqueous (fermentation broth) phase. There­fore, butanol selectively concentrates in the organic phase. Since the extractant and fermentation broth are immiscible, the […]

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CLOSING THOUGHTS

A general observation made while surveying the DMFC literature is the unsettling lack of replicates in many studies. Frequently, one test cell is compared to one control cell and no statistics are provided to gauge cell performance. The incom­plete reporting of test condtions further confounds comparison. While impractical for some studies, an analysis of cell performance over extended periods of […]

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Efficient Use of Water

Whereas the aquaponics system is water-based, the system as a whole is very efficient in the use of water to distribute nutrients. There is a small amount of evaporation from the fish tanks and growbeds, but the majority of water used goes into plant and fish growth, i. e., the only water actually removed from the system is in the […]

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Dimethyl Ether (DME)

Dimethyl ether (CH3OCH3) is generally produced by dehydration of methanol. At large scale, the methanol production and dehydration processes are combined in one reactor, such that the dimethyl ether is produced directly from synthesis gas slightly more efficiently than methanol. The previously mentioned slurry bubble column reactor of Eastman Chemical Company in Kingsport, TN, has been demonstrated to be able […]

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TYPES OF VEHICLES USING E85

E85 is used to operate spark-ignited engines that have been modified to accept this fuel. Unlike E10, E85 cannot be used in spark-ignited engines that have not been modified. This has slowed the adoption of E85 because there is a supply and demand problem: consumers will not buy vehicles unless there is a readily available source of fuel, and fuel […]

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Biofuel Cells

The rise in use of portable electronic devices has been increasing steadily in the United States and abroad over the past few years and most likely will continue to increase over the years to come as the population becomes more dependent on multifunctional portable electronics. Harvesting energy from renewable resources has become an important focus in order to eliminate our […]

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Saving Family Farms

The project has specifically chosen an agricultural application in the hopes that some of this information may be used by operating farms as a means to create additional on-farm income or that it may encourage others to enter farming. Approximately 450 farms per year go out of business in New York State due to high energy costs and economic failure […]

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