Category Archives: PROCESS SYNTHESIS. FOR FUEL ETHANOL. PRODUCTION

Heat Integration of Fermentation

Product Recovery, and Stillage Evaporation Steps for Fuel Ethanol Production In a previous work (Grisales et al., 2005), the heat integration approach was uti­lized for the analysis of the fermentation, distillation, and evaporation steps of the fuel ethanol production process from lignocellulosic biomass using azeotropic dis­tillation for ethanol dehydration. Low ethanol concentrations in the culture broth exiting the fermenter increase […]

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Ethyl Tert-Butyl Ether (ETBE)

Although MTBE volatility is relatively low, the standards for reformulated gasoline in the developed countries are very exigent during summer in order to reduce the smog formation in the cities. This makes the RVP specifications for gasoline lower than the corresponding value for MTBE. For this reason, the employing of ethers with more branched carbon chains and lower volatilities has […]

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GENETICALLY MODIFIED MICROORGANISMS FOR ETHANoL Production

Due to the need for improving fuel ethanol production processes especially when lignocellulosic biomass is used, the development of microorganism strains with better performance in terms of ethanol yield and productivity is required, par­ticularly concerning the direct conversion of polymeric feedstocks. For instance, a way to improve the technoeconomic indexes of ethanol production processes from starch consists in developing yeasts […]

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Case Study. Evaluation of Dehydration Step for Ethanol Production

In a previous work (Quintero et al., 2007), a simulation of the ethanol dehydration process in addition to an evaluation of energy and capital costs was performed. For this, several representative configurations were compared under the same input conditions as the case of a fermented mash with a given ethanol concentration (11.4%) and considering the physical-chemical properties of the components […]

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ENVIRONMENTAL PERFORMANCE OF FUEL ETHANOL PRODUCTION

The assessment of fuel ethanol production processes from an environmental point of view implies not only the quantification and analysis of the polluting burdens generated by the conversion technologies, but also the evaluation of the environ­mental performance of such processes considering their influence on the planet in terms of the depletion of natural resources, contamination of the ecosystems, and global […]

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Pheimomena-Driven Design

The phenomena-driven approach for process synthesis considers as a starting point for the design, not the unit operations, but the phenomena occurring in them at a lower level of aggregation (Gavrila and Iedema, 1996). Reactions, phase changes, heat and mass transfer, and mixing are considered among the phenomena included in this method. The design problem is divided (decomposed) into three […]

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PRETREATMENT OF LIGNOCELLULOSIC BIOMASS

The lignocellulosic biomass represents the most abundant source of fermentable sugar in nature, not only for fuel ethanol production, but also for producing a wide range of fermentation products, such as additives for the food industry, indus­trial chemicals, components of balanced animal feed, and pharmaceuticals. But to utilize this renewable resource in the production of most of these products, the […]

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Fermentation of Sugar Solutions Using Immobilized Cells

One of the strategies employed to improve the ethanolic fermentation is the uti­lization of immobilized cells. Cell immobilization consists of the attachment of cells into a support or a location in a defined space in order to utilize, in a con­trolled way, their capacity to accomplish biological transformation. Thus, the cells do not leave the bioreactor, and continuous fermentation processes […]

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