Category Archives: Microbes and biochemistry of gas fermentation

Lignin in polyurethane

Polyurethanes are made of diisocyanate and polyol precursors, which have been used for the highly diversified applications. Traditionally, they were made from petroleum-based synthetic polyols and nowadays soy-based polyols are also widely used as the renewable feedstock. Nakamura and his co-researchers [189] investigated the lignin-based polyurethane (PU) films using polyethylene glycol (PEG) and diphenylmethane diisocyanate (MDI). They reported the thermal […]

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Current status of coproducts from biofuel industries

1.1. The global biofuel industry status The biofuel industry has been growing rapidly during recent years and continues to expand for the next decade. Such expansion is basically driven by renewable energy goals and different policy supports as for example use mandates, tax relief, fuel quality specifications and investment capacities in leading producing countries [18]. Based on the projection reported […]

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Dichromate oxidation method

Beverage sample solution (1~5 mL) was steam distillated to obtain alcoholic eluate (> 50 mL), and then oxidized with acidified dichromate. The excessive potassium dichromate was then titrated with ferric oxide. The ethanol content in beverage sample could be obtained by calculating the volume difference of potassium dichromate consumption between sample solution and control solution (Anonymous. 1992; Collins et al., […]

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Lignin based carbon nanostructures

Recently, carbonaceous nanomaterials that include carbon nanotubes, carbon nanofibres, graphene/graphite nanosheets and also particulate carbon nanostructures have received an extensive importance due to their possible commercial values in diversified areas like poly­meric composites, sensors, energy storage/ conversion, catalysis, filters and biology [203—208]. Traditionally, carbonaceous materials were prepared from petroleum-based precursors (liquid/gaseous hydrocarbons and carbon rich polymers such as polyacrylonitrile-PAN). As […]

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Biofuel coproducts

1.1.1. Corn bioethanol Starch-based ethanol can be obtained from corn, wheat, barley, sorghum or any other starchy grain by fermentation. However, due to highly fermentable starch content, corn is the main feedstock for ethanol production by fermentation and accounts for 98% of all starch-based ethanol feedstocks [1]. Bioethanol from corn is produced in both dry mill and wet mill plants […]

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Biogas (bio-methane) extraction

Methane fermentation is a versatile biotechnology capable of converting almost all types of polymeric materials to methane and carbon dioxide under anaerobic conditions. This is ach­ieved as a result of the consecutive biochemical breakdown of polymers to methane and car­bon dioxide in an environment in which varieties of microorganisms which include fermentative microbes (acidogens); hydrogen-producing, acetate-forming microbes (aceto — gens); […]

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