Category Archives: Microbes and biochemistry of gas fermentation

Lignin in thermosets

The lignins of different resources have been incorporated into various thermoset resins. Amorphous/heterogeneous nature and the complex structural composition of lignin result their behavior as either like a filler or like a reactive macromonomer in epoxy resin systems. Man- souri et al. [181] characterized the alkaline lignin and suggested their possible use for phenol- formaldehyde resin due to the availability […]

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Cetane index

Krisnagkura [1986] proposed the equation for the estimation of cetane index (CI) based on the saponification and iodine values, recommending not to be used for oils, only for methyl esters. Namely, it has been previously documented that despite the fact that triglycerides and fatty acid methyl esters have similar saponification and iodine values, like it was ob­tained in this study […]

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Bioconversion of lignocellulosic biomass to fuels involves three major steps: 1) pretreatment — to effectively broken the biomass structure and release the biomass components i. e. cellu­lose, hemicellulose, and lignin, and therefore increase the digestibility of the biomass; 2) enzymatic hydrolysis — to hydrolyse cellulose and hemicellulose and produce fermentable sugar, such as glucose, xylose etc.; 3) fermentation — to […]

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Sustainability through value addition

Due to the uncertainty in long term availability of fossil fuels and their continuous threat to environment through greenhouse gas emission, there is a drive across the globe towards the exploration of various biorefinery systems. Production of biofuel creates impact in utilization of biomass, replacement of possible extend of gasoline, reduction of greenhouse gas emission and the creation of significant […]

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Value-added biomaterials from biofuel coproducts

3.1. Distillers’ grains 3.1.1. As biofiller in producing polymeric biocomposites The low cost of distillers’ grains (DDG and DDGS) is a key incentive for researchers to utilize them as biobased fillers in manufacturing polymer composites. Also, addition of DDG(S) to the polymer matrix can result in improved stiffness as long as proper treatments and proc-

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