Category Archives: Microbes and biochemistry of gas fermentation

Bagasse-thermoplastic biocomposites

Bagasse has been used as reinforcing filler in different thermoplastic matrices such as poly(eth — ylene-co-vinyl acetate) (or EVA) [152—153], polyolefins [154—155] and starch-based biodegrad­able polyester [140—141, 156—157]. The effect of cultivar type and surface cleaning of the bagasse fiber on the tensile properties of the bagasse-EVA composites have been investigated [152]. The results suggested that blends of bagasse from […]

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OPEFB torrefaction

Torrefaction is a thermal conversion method of biomass in the low temperature range of 200-300 °C. Biomass is pretreated to produce a high quality solid biofuel that can be used for combustion and gasification [16—17]. It is based on the removal of oxygen from biomass to produce a fuel with increased energy density. Different reaction conditions (temperature, in­ert gas, reaction […]

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Second step transterification

The production methodology followed in this study was according to Tomosevic and Si — ler-Marinkovic [2003] with some modification, where the alkali-catalyzed transesterifica­tion was applied. Basically, methanol was the alcohol of choice and KOH was used as the catalyst. Potassium methoxide solution (PMS) was prepared freshly by mixing a pre­determined amount of methanol (« 12 wt % of oil) with […]

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Biodiesel

1.1.1.1. Proteineous meal The major biodiesel feedstocks are vegetable oils which are generally produced by crushing oil seeds, leaving significant quantity of proteineous meals as coproducts. The global con­sumption of proteineous meal in 2011/12 as reported by USDA Economic Research Services [97] is depicted in Figure 7 indicating soybean as the predominant crop producing proteineous meal with 67 % contribution. […]

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Polymeric blends and composites from lignin

3.2.1.1. Lignin in thermoplastics In polymers, lignins have been used as low-cost fillers aiming to retain their mechanical properties. Nitz et al. [164] reported the influence of various types of lignin reinforcement with the thermoplastics on their mechanical properties. Their results indicate that they are able to incorporate ~40 wt% lignin in to polyamide 11 (PA11), polyester (Ecoflex®) and polyestera […]

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Summary

The analysis of thermo-chemical conversion of OPEFB suggests that gasification is the most suitable thermo-chemical route for OPEFB conversion to biofuels. It has the highest carbon conversion (>90%) and biofuel yield. Due to the high viscosity and high water content of py­rolysis products, application of bio-oil as a biofuel is still very challenging. Compared to other oil palm residues, such […]

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