Category Archives: LIQUID, GASEOUS AND SOLID BIOFUELS — CONVERSION TECHNIQUES

Characterization of 2nd generation feedstock

Plant biomass can be used as a sustainable source of organic carbon to create bioenergy, ei­ther directly in the form of heat and electricity, or as liquid biofuels produced by thermo­chemical or biochemical methods or their combination [12]. In contrast to fossil energy sources, which are the result of long-term transformation of organic matter, plant biomass is created via photosynthesis […]

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Construction of analytical curves

Figure 4 illustrates the results obtained for the analytical curve in the concentration range 0.1-0.4 |jg Cu L-1 in 0.14 mol L-1HNO3, using the optimized conditions of the TS-FF-AAS sys­tem. The transient signals were repeatable, and (for both tubes) the curve was linear in the concentration range studied. A two-fold greater sensitivity was achieved using the ceramic tube.

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Biomass disruption in pretreatment process

A prerequisite for ethanol production from lignocellulose is to break recalcitrant structure of material by removal of lignin, and to expose cellulose, making it more accessible to cellulo­lytic enzymes by modifying its structure; this happens in the pretreatment process. Basical­ly, lignocellulose processing into fermentable sugars occurs in two steps: a) pretreatment yielding a liquid fraction that is mostly derived from […]

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Toxic compounds released in pretreatment process

Toxic products can generally be divided into three main groups — aliphatic acids, furan de­rivatives and phenolic compounds [68—70] released by degradation of carbohydrates, and compounds arising from lignin. In acidic solutions, cellulose and hemicellulose are broken down into hexose and pentose sugars, which are further decomposed at high temperatures into furan derivatives represented mainly by 2-furaldehyde (furfural, FF) and […]

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