Category Archives: LIQUID, GASEOUS AND SOLID BIOFUELS — CONVERSION TECHNIQUES

Conversion of xylose under a base catalyst

1.3. The chemical pathway The interaction between xylose and bases, either Bransted or Lewis, is rather less reported in the literature when compared to the acid conversion of xylose to furfural indicated in the previous section. Many very different reactions have been reported as in the case of Popoff and Theander [50] that have quantified the cyclic compounds produced after […]

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Experimental part

The experimental measurements were carried out on a four-stroke, air-cooled engine. This is a one-cylinder engine with 123cm3 displacement that is connected with a phase single alter­native generator (230V/50Hz) with maximum electrical load approximately 1KW(picture 1). The engine according to the manufacturer uses as fuel gasoline. The engine functioned with­out load and under full load conditions (1KW) using different fuel […]

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Entrained flow reactor

Entrained flow reactor is the preferred route for large scale gasification of coal, petcoke and refinery residues because of high carbon conversion efficiencies and low tar production [22]. This mode of gasifier does not require inert bed material but relies on feeding the feedstocks co-currently with oxidizing agent at high velocity to achieve a pneumatic transport regime

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The biological pathway

Amongst the different options for the conversion of xylose reported in the previous chap­ter, production of lactic acid via the microbial route is a vastly studied field [61—63] since currently, all of the production of lactic acid at an industrial scale in the world is biologi­cally based. Traditionally, the concept evolves around fermenting carbohydrate-based syr­up by homolactic organisms, mostly lactic […]

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Experimental procedures

1.1. Instruments and accessories The instrumentation consisted of an atomic absorption spectrometer fitted with a flame atomizer (Perkin-Elmer, model AAnalyst 100), a hollow cathode Cu lamp (Л = 324.8 nm, slit width = 0.7 nm, i = 15 mA), with an air/acetylene (4:2 ratio) flame gas mixture, and back­ground correction using a deuterium lamp. Other equipment comprised an analytical bal­ance […]

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