Category Archives: Bioenergy


Irrigation largely depends on local climatic conditions. Jatropha is well adapted to dry soils and can stand without water for long periods (as long as 2 years) and can resume growth once rains return (Nahar 2011). Jatropha with high-quality seeds has an average 1 L/plant/day water consumption rate throughout the growing season (PSO 2010). Although J. curcas by shedding its […]

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Abaca Market Demand and Supply

The Philippines, being the world’s leading producer of abaca fiber, has been reported to supply about 84 % of the global abaca requirement followed by Ecuador which supplies about 16 % fiber requirement (FIDA 2009). The abaca industry has been found to maintain a stronghold in both national/domestic and international markets since 1989 as the demand for raw abaca fibers […]

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Adsorption Property

The water is a non-wetting liquid for kapok fiber due to the formation of large contact angle (>90°) between water and kapok fiber. Therefore, the water is not accessible to the large lumen of kapok fiber. Then, the kapok fiber should experi­ence a chemical or physical pretreatment to be hydrophilic for further application as the adsorbent for removing different kinds […]

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Methods for Cultivation of Algal Biomass

Some of the techniques used for biomass cultivation are: Photoautotrophic Production This form of cultivation takes place when algae utilize an energy source (light) and a carbon source (inorganic carbon) to form carbohydrates through a process termed as photosynthesis. This is the most general method used for cultivating algae and results in the formation of algal cells with lipid […]

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Characterization of Activated Catalyst

Raw material and activated carbons tests were performed on dry basis according to International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) procedures to determine their main property. Fixed carbon content was determined by difference (Angin et al. 2013a, b). Acid densities of the carbons were determined by titration method using phenolphthalein indicator (Konwar et al. […]

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Moisture Absorption

The process of moisture absorption in bamboo is observed to follow the kinetics described in Fick’s theory (Kushwaha and Kumar 2010). The moisture absorption of bamboo fibers is observed to be 13 %, which is more than that of cotton, lyocell, viscose rayon, modal, and soybean (Erdumlu and Ozipek 2008). Bamboo fiber pro­vides a reservoir of moisture, which usually diffuses […]

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