Category Archives: Biomass Conversion

Reduction of Metal Oxide to Metal

• Reduction: The process can be done by either heating the metal oxide or chemically reducing the metal oxide using chemical reducing agents such as carbon, aluminium, sodium, or calcium. • Electrolytic reduction: Electrolytic reduction is the process used to extract oxides (or chlorides) of highly reactive metals like sodium, magnesium, aluminium, and cal­cium. Molten oxides (or chlorides) are electrolyzed. […]

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Alkali Hydrolysis

The use of alkaline pretreatments is effective depending on the lignin content of the biomass. Alkali pretreatments increase cellulose digestibility and they are more effective for lignin solubilization, exhibiting minor cellulose and hemicellulose solubilization than acid or hydro-thermal processes [24]. Alkali pretreatment can be performed at room temperature and times ranging from seconds to days. It is described to cause […]

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Hemicelluloses

The composition of degraded hemicelluloses liquor obtained from organic acid fraction of the raw material is very complex and various pretreatments are needed for further fermentation. Especially many components that are inhibitory to microorganism should be removed. The hemicelluloses liquor from Milox pulping of reed was pretreated with powered activated carbon aimed at lowering the content of formic acid, and […]

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Membrane Processes

The isolation of vanillate from kraft lignin oxidation media by ultrafiltration (UF) has been investigated by Zabkova et al. [135]. The higher molecular weight com­pounds can be easily retained using membranes technology. During the UF process vanillin is collected in the permeate stream, whilst the lignin as a macromolecule stays in the retentate. The appropriate size of membrane cut off […]

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Factors Influencing Dark Fermentation

For industrial applications, hydrogen production rates and yields need to be maximized, and at the same time, energy inputs need to be kept low. Optimizing reactor configuration is therefore an important consideration for developing a fermentative hydrogen production process. For practical dark fermentative hydrogen production, it is likely that large-scale reactors would be required, however it can be hard to […]

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Lignosulfonates

12.2.2.1 Origin and Isolation Lignosulfonate is the resulting lignin from acid sulfite pulping of wood, which was the dominant process for cellulose production until it was surpassed by the kraft process in the 1940s. Sulfite pulps account now for less than 10% of the total chemical pulp production. In this process, sulfites (SO32-), or bisulfites (HSO3-) are the pulping agents […]

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Phytoextraction

Contamination of soils with toxic metals has often resulted from human activities, especially those related to mining, industrial emissions, disposal or leakage of industrial wastes, application of sewage sludge to agricultural soils, manure, fer­tilizer, and pesticide use. Excessive metal concentration in soil poses significant hazard to human, animal and plant health, and to the environment. The aim of phytoextraction is […]

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Overview of Organosolv Fractionation

Organosolv fractionation of lignocelluloses has a long history, which undergoes a change from structure study to pulping, and currently to energy usage. The earliest study applying organic solvents to treat lignocellulosic material was back in 1893, when Klason [9, 10] used ethanol and hydrochloric acid to separate wood into its components to study the structure of lignin and carbohydrates. After […]

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