Category Archives: Biofuels from Agricultural Wastes and Byproducts

Anaerobic Digestion in the United States

Reduction of odors and water pollution as well as potential energy generation (CHP) on large livestock operations have stimulated increased interest in anaerobic digestion systems. Since the mid-1970s, interest in methane generation technology in the United States has varied. Early anaerobic digestion in the United States had been farm-based with primary efforts to develop appropriate technology, which would require low […]

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Ethanol Production from Glycerol

Although a number of high-value products have been produced using glycerol, production of ethanol from glycerol provides a unique opportunity for the biodiesel industry to generate another biofuel from biodiesel waste. E. aerogenes HU101 isolated from methanogenic sludge produced ethanol and H2 when glycerol was used as a substrate (Ito et al. 2005). Low amounts of lactate, acetate, formate, and […]

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Chemical Detoxification Methods

Alkali Treatment Alkali treatments, particularly the treatment with calcium hydroxide (overliming), have been widely used for improving the fermentability of ligocellulose hydrolysates. In an overliming process, lime is added to the hydrolysate, resulting in the formation of insoluble salts. Larsson et al. (1999) compared the effects of 12 detoxification methods, including alkali treatments with sodium hydroxide (NaOH) and calcium hydroxide […]

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Free Enzyme Systems

The free enzymes comprise a catalytic module alone with no accessory modules or with a CBM. The simplest enzymes often specialize on degrading soluble oligosaccharide break­down products or bind to the polysaccharide substrate such as cellulose or xylan via the intrinsic affinity of its active site. In contrast, the polypeptide chain of many free enzymes includes both a catalytic module […]

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Environmental Considerations

Agricultural and forestry residues and organic portions of municipal solid waste can have a negative impact on the environment as they decay. On the other hand, converting these residues to ethanol can offer immediate and sustained GHG advantages and simultaneously enhance domestic fuel production (Paustian et al. 1998; Tilman et al. 2001; DiPardo 2002; Wyman 2003b; Zhang et al. 2007; […]

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About the Editors

Hans P. Blaschek is a Professor of Microbiology and Director of the Center for Advanced BioEnergy Research (CABER) at the University of Illinois. He also serves as Assistant Dean of Biobased Research Initiatives in the Office of Research in the College of Agricultural, Consumer and Environmental Sciences, and is the theme leader of the Molecular Bio­engineering of Biomass Conversion Research […]

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Mixing in Digesters

Conflicting Reports on Mixing in Digesters The literature contains conflicting information regarding the mixing intensity and duration that is necessary in digesters to treat a waste with a high concentration of VS. In general, workers agree that mixing is necessary to enhance substrate contact with the microbial com­munity, improve pH and temperature uniformity, prevent stratification and scum accumula­tion, facilitate the […]

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