Category Archives: Biofuels from Agricultural Wastes and Byproducts

The Role of Water in HTL

Water plays an essential role in HTL. It is therefore critical to understand the fundamentals of water chemistry when subjected to high temperature conditions. Water is rather benign and will not likely react with organic molecules under standard environmental conditions (20°C and 101,325kPa). However, when the temperature increases, two properties of water mole­cules change substantially. First, the relative permittivity (dielectric […]

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In conclusion, numerous advances have been made in the conversion of biomass to biofuels as biomass is the only source that is renewable and economically available. Problems associated with inhibitor generation and detoxification, fermentation of both hexoses and pentoses to ethanol, and the development of efficient microbial strains have partially been addressed. Simultaneous product recovery and process consolidation and integration […]

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Anaerobic Digestion in Denmark

Biogas generation from agricultural wastes was first introduced in Denmark in the late 1970s during the first energy crisis. Although not as widespread as on farms in Germany, where many small farms have digesters, Denmark has three categories of digester: (1) 20 community (centralized) biogas plants ranging from 540 to 7500 m3 in volume and fed with animal and industrial […]

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Biosurfactants, Fatty Acids, and Lipids

Biosurfactants are microbial-derived surface-active agents that can be used as emulsifiers, de — emulsifiers, wetting agents, foaming agents, functional food ingredients, and detergents in various industrial sectors such as petrochemicals, food and beverages, cosmetics and pharmaceuticals, agrochemicals, and fertilizers. They are preferred to chemical surfactants due to their biodegradability, surface properties, and low toxicity. Rhamnolipid is a type of biosurfactants […]

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Comparison between Herbaceous Fiber and Grain Systems

Harvesting There are many different models and sizes of combines for harvesting grain and several dif­ferent models and sizes of cotton harvesters. In like manner, there are a number of different machines for harvesting sugarcane. The manufacturers of harvest machines all state that the capacity of their machine (t/hour), averaged over a day’s operation, is dependent on the infield hauling […]

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Supercritical Fluid Extraction (SFE)

Any substance at a temperature and pressure above its thermodynamic critical point will become supercritical fluid, which can diffuse through solids like a gas and dissolve materials like a liquid (Hawthorne 1990). Additionally, close to the critical point, small changes in pressure or temperature result in large changes in density, allowing many properties to be adjusted. Supercritical fluids may be […]

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