Category Archives: Production of Biofuels and Chemicals with Ionic Liquids

VOC Biodegradation in TPPBs

Biological processes play an important role in the treatment of VOC. According to the compound or the family of compounds to be removed, the biomass does not contain the same microbial species. At lab-scale, bacteria are mainly used; com­mercial or strains isolated for their potential can be implemented. Some recent applications also involve fungi, which are more tolerant than bacteria […]

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Editors’ Biography

Prof. Dr. Zhen FANG is the leader and founder of biomass group, Xishuangbanna Tropical Botanical Garden, Chinese Academy of Sciences. He is also an adjunct full Professor of Life Sciences, University of Science and Technology of China. He is the inventor of “fast hydrolysis” process. He is specializing in thermal/biochem — ical conversion of biomass, nanocatalyst synthesis and its applications, […]

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Interactions

For conventional solvents, molecules solubilization is generally expressed in terms of dielectric constant of solvent. However, these criteria could not be applied to ionic liquids. Several studies have been conducted to establish a specific ranking based on interactions between ILs and solutes [43]. This model considered inter­actions involving hydrogen bond and polarizability. According to these authors, ionic liquids are polar […]

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Biodegradation in Multiphase Bioreactors

Microorganisms are able to assimilate a wide range of the available solvents, particularly alkanes, ketones or hydroxylated solvents (carboxylic acid, aldehydes, etc.). Solvents containing long alkyl chains or alcohol, ester or carboxylic groups are also biodegradable, and are precursors of beta oxidation. Other solvents like phthalates or plasticiser compounds (for example adipates) can also be degraded by various microorganisms such […]

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Two-Phase Partitioning Bioreactor (TPPB)

Multiphase bioreactors for environmental applications are known as two-phase partitioning bioreactors (TPPB — Fig. 12.4). TPPB are based on the addition of a non-aqueous liquid phase (NAPL) offering a high affinity for the target pollutants to be removed [123] in order to improve pollutant mass transfer from the gaseous to the liquid phase, and hence to improve the subsequent biodegradation […]

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Toxicity of ILs Towards Microorganisms or Biocompatibility

These criteria have to be considered as soon as possible in the ILs structure development. First studies concerning ILs toxicity were reported in the 1950s and since the 1990s many publications have dealt with this topic as ILs have become popular in green chemistry [110, 140, 141]. A good knowing of IL toxicity is necessary to develop an industrial application […]

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