Reduction of oxygen catalyzed by bilirubin oxidase

BOD is naturally capable of catalyzing the oxidation of bilirubin into biliverdin and to simultaneously reduce dioxygen (Shimizu et al., 1999). BOD is very similar to laccase. Performances of BOD electrodes are greatly related to the amino-acids sequence around T1 site of the enzyme (Li et al., 2004). It is clearly reported that the most efficient BOD enzyme comes from […]

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Microfabricated devices

1.1 Advantages of microfluidics An alternative approach towards the miniaturization of energy conversion devices is the use of microfabrication techniques. Microchemical systems have inherent advantages over macrosystems, including increased rates of mass transfer, low amount of reagents, increased safety as a result of smaller volumes, and coupling of multiple microreactors. Microfluidic techniques are ideal for miniaturization of devices featured with […]

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Surface functionalization of C-MEMS

There are several factors regulating the lifetime of biofuel cells, which has always been a concern for their practical application. In most cases, the stability of enzyme determines the lifetime of biofuel cells. Immobilization of enzyme through covalent bonding on solid surface has attracted great attention for applications in catalytic processes. Therefore, in our research, covalent attachment of enzyme on […]

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Novel approaches toward biobutanol production

In the past industrial applications, batch fermentation was a usual way how to produce biobutanol due to arrangement simplicity and attaining maximum biobutanol concentration, given by the used strain and cultivation medium, at the end of fermentation. Fed-batch fermentation can be regarded as modification of the batch process offering slight productivity increase by reduction of lag growth phase. However, taking […]

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Probing the D. salina genome for constitutively active promoters

Despite others’ success with genomic PCR of Dunaliella-specific nucleotide sequences, our efforts to obtain the actin and rbcS2 promoters and nitA 3′-UTR were unsuccessful. Although the products from these PCR attempts appeared to be the correct fragment length, upon sequencing, it became clear that these were not the targets that we set out to amplify. BLAST analysis of some sequences […]

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Cell wall analysis by 2D and 3D electron microscopy

Plant cell walls are highly complex networks made of carbohydrates, lignins and some proteins. Apart from the complexity of individual plant cell walls, the walls can be very diverse in composition and organization, between different groups of plants, between different species and even within same plant, organ, tissue and cell type. Cell walls are also dynamic in nature and their […]

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