Category Archives: BIOFUEL’S ENGINEERING PROCESS TECHNOLOGY

Process implications

The proposed reaction pathway for catalytic hydrotreatment of pyrolysis oil (Figure 10) implies that the rate of the hydrogenation route should be much higher than the rate of the repolymerisation route to obtain good quality upgraded pyrolysis oil (low molecular weight, low viscosity, low coking tendency). An obvious solution is the development of highly active hydrogenation catalysts. These studies will […]

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Pilot-scale pelleting of agricultural biomass

Pilot-scale densification of biomass is required to demonstrate the feasibility of production of pellets by application of various variables studied during single-pellet experiments. A pilot-scale pellet mill such as CPM CL-5 pellet mill (Figure 3) (California Pellet Mill Co., Crawfordsville, IN) can be used for processing of agricultural straw grinds into pellets. The pellet mill usually consists of a corrugated […]

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Laboratory test

Oil samples obtained in conformity with chosen methodology were subjected to laboratory tests, which comprised of following analyses: determination of peroxide number (PN), acid number (AN) and composition of fatty acids. Determination of peroxide number (PN) in conformity with [ISO 3960] was based on titration of iodine released from potassium iodide by peroxides present in the sample, calculated per their […]

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Water content and sediment

The Brazilian and American standards combine water content and sediment in a single parameter, whereas the European standard treats water as a separate parameter with the sediment being treated by the Total Contamination property. Water is introduced into biodiesel during the final washing step of the production process and has to be reduced by drying. However, even very low water […]

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Mass cultivation of microalgae

The cultivation macro — and microalgae is a well-established practice, providing ample biomass for human nutrition, commercially important biopolymers, and specialty chemicals, that dates back nearly 2,000 years (Spolaore et al., 2006). As an example, growing the gelatinous cyanobacteria Nostoc in rice patties enabled much of the Chinese population to survive famine in 200 AD (Qiu et al., 2002). Since […]

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Syngas conversion into methanol

3.1 Thermodynamic consideration The two major components of synthesis gas, hydrogen and carbon monoxide are the building blocks of what is often known as C1 chemistry. Conversion of syngas to liquid fuels as well as conversion rates is directly related to the composition of the catalyst. Syngas can be efficiently converted to different products as alcohols and aldehyde (Figure 2).

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Chemical pre-treatment

Different chemicals such as acids, alkalis, oxidizing agents and ozone have been used for chemical pre-treatment of lignocellulosic materials. Depending on the type of chemical used, pre-treatment could have different effects on structural components. Alkaline pre-treatment, ozonolysis, peroxide and wet oxidation pre-treatments were reportedly more effective in lignin removal, whereas dilute acid pre-treatment was more efficient in hemicellulose solubilization (Galbe […]

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