Category Archives: BIOFUEL’S ENGINEERING PROCESS TECHNOLOGY

Determination of minimum inhibitory concentrations

In liquid culture, the growth rate of D. salina CCAP 19/18 was significantly retarded by a bleocin concentration of 0.25 mg L-1. In the presence of 0.5 and 1.0 mg bleocin L-1, however, growth was completely inhibited; yet, cells were able to survive for over a week. In accordance with this restricted cell division, these cells exhibited physical manifestations of […]

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Microwave assisted process

Generally, heating coils are used to heat the raw material in biodiesel production process. This treatment can be also done by microwave method. An alternative heating system "microwave irradiation" has been used in transesterification reactions in recent years. Microwaves are electromagnetic radiations which represent a nonionizing radiation that influences molecular motions such as ion migration or dipole rotations, but not […]

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Lignocellulosic composition and higher heating values

The experimental lignocellulosic composition of agricultural straw can be determined using the modified NREL LAP method for "Determination of Structural Carbohydrates and Lignin in Biomass" (Table 1) (Adapa et al., 2011; Sluiter et al., 2008). This procedure uses a two-step acid hydrolysis to fractionate the biomass into forms that are more easily quantified. During this process, the lignin fractionates into […]

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Cell wall analysis by vibrational spectroscopy and microscopy

Vibrational spectroscopy and microscopy techniques have been broadly used to analyze chemical and biological materials. The two main vibrational spectroscopic techniques, infrared spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy, detect vibrations including both simple bond vibrations and group vibrations in molecules and thus identify these molecules by their spectral fingerprints originated from various vibrational modes. Infrared absorption typically involves photon absorption with the […]

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Blue Tower technology

The characteristics of the BT process are similar to the indirect gasification process with a pyrolyzer. This gasifier has three reactors for the preheating process, the reforming process and the pyrolysis process. The gasifier has the following characteristics; 1) pyrolysis reactions take place in the pyrolyzer, 2) pyrolysis gases are reformed by H2O (steam), 3) heat required for their reactions […]

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Biomethanol Production from Forage Grasses, Trees, and Crop Residues

Hitoshi Nakagawa et al.* Biomass Research and Development Center National Agriculture and Food Research Organization (NARO) Japan 1. Introduction About 12 billion tons of fossil fuels (oil equivalent) are consumed in the world in 2007 (OECD 2010) and these fuels influence the production of acid rain, photochemical smog, and the increase of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2). Researchers warn that the […]

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Challenges of butanol production

Production of biobutanol by clostridia is not straightforward process and 1-butanol is neither a typical primary metabolite, the formation of which is connected with cells growth, nor a typical secondary metabolite like antibiotics or pigments. The metabolic switch from acido — to solventogenesis, regulation of which is usually connected with sporulation initiation, does not need to happen necessarily during the […]

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Process implications

The proposed reaction pathway for catalytic hydrotreatment of pyrolysis oil (Figure 10) implies that the rate of the hydrogenation route should be much higher than the rate of the repolymerisation route to obtain good quality upgraded pyrolysis oil (low molecular weight, low viscosity, low coking tendency). An obvious solution is the development of highly active hydrogenation catalysts. These studies will […]

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