Category Archives: BIOFUEL PRODUCTION — RECENT DEVELOPMENTS AND PROSPECTS

Root architecture

Plants rely on roots and their dynamic architecture for water and nutrient uptake from soil. It is a dilemma, especially under nutrient restricted conditions, for plants to allocate their limited N resources to root growth for foraging of additional nutrients or to shoot development and reproductive structures. Therefore, it is important to understand the changes associated with root growth and […]

Read more

Biofuel byproducts as fertilizers — research efforts

As described above, the high N content (38 — 87 g N kg-1) and low C:N ratio (5.1 — 12.0) strongly suggest that biofuel byproducts are effective N fertilizer sources (Table 1). Nitrogen mineralization studies are commonly used to closely determine plant available N (PAN) in organic amendments, such as biofuel byproducts, as opposed to roughly estimating PAN based on […]

Read more

Biological hydrogen processes

A number of photosynthetic processes for H2 production from water have been proposed and studied for over three decades [54]. These include direct and indirect water-splitting ("bio-photolysis") processes using microalgae that contain the enzymes hydrogenase and nitrogenase. Alternative processes are briefly reviewed for potential practicality and a novel process for photo-biological water splitting is proposed [55].

Read more

Light positively influences cellulase transcription

The first and most surprising finding of the transcriptional comparison of QM9414 and QM9978 was the differential regulation of a putative light regulatory gene, encoding the orthologue of the Neurospora crassa photoreceptor VIVID (Schmoll et al., 2004). Detailed investigation of this gene, named envl (encoding ENVOY for "messenger") indeed confirmed a function in regulation of cellulase gene expression and moreover, […]

Read more

Single Cell Protein (SCP) from agro-industrial wastes; Sugarcane bagasse

Growth of microbial cells both bacterial and yeast on any material means that the substrate ingredients are being transferred or altered to proteins along with synthesis and accumulation of other contents of protoplasm. Upgradation of a large number of agro­industrial wastes, which after being fortified with S. C.P. may find their useful application in preparing or supplementing animal feed. The […]

Read more

A short history of the main T. reesei strain improvement programs

Over the past decades, academic and industrial research programs have produced many different T. reesei strains by random mutagenesis in combination with appropriate selection regimes (reviewed by Harman and Kubicek, 1998) whose cellulase production exceeds by far the level of the original isolate QM6a. By 1979, classical mutagenesis programmes had led to the development of mutant strains with an up […]

Read more

Fundamentals of microwave irradiation

For rapid synthesis of the two abovementioned biofuels, the application of microwave technology has been proposed. Microwave technology relies on the use of electromagnetic waves to generate heat by the oscillation of molecules upon microwave absorption. The electromagnetic spectrum for microwaves is in between infrared radiation and radiofrequencies of 30 GHz to 300 MHz, respectively, corresponding to wavelengths of 1cm […]

Read more

Fermentative production of butanol (ABE fermentation)

1.3.1.1 Metabolism and enzymes of Clostridium acetobutylicum C. acetobutylicum is a Gram-positive anaerobe organism. Its metabolism is characterized by a biphasic fermentation (Figure 4), starting with the formation of the acids acetate and butyrate. As a consequence of the accumulation of free acids and the resulting pH drop, the essential proton gradient between inside and outside of the cell gets […]

Read more
1 2 3 4 5 29