Category Archives: BIOFUEL PRODUCTION — RECENT DEVELOPMENTS AND PROSPECTS

Butanol (biobased-butanol, biobutanol)

While alcoholic fuels have almost the same properties as gasoline (Table 2), butanol provides a number of advantages over ethanol. Primarily, the energy density of butanol is significantly higher, resulting in an increased mileage. In addition, the air-fuel ratio of butanol is higher, which means that it can be run at richer mixtures and therefore produce more power. The octane […]

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Electrohydrogenesis

Electrohydrogenesis is a recently developed electrolysis method for directly converting biodegradable material, organic acids into hydrogen using modified microbial fuel cells (MFCs) (Liu et al., 2005; Rozendal et al., 2006; Ditzig et al., 2007; Cheng & Logan, 2007; Rozendal et al., 2008; ). In fact, these types of cells are rather versatile and have been shown to be able to […]

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. Plant cell-wall derived inhibitors and microorganisms

The toxicity of inhibitors depends upon the concentration, type of fermentative organism, the mode of cultivation, and cultivation conditions (i. e. pH, inoculum, dissolve oxygen and temperature). The toxic component may lead to stop the growth of microorganism by affecting the rate of sugar uptake with simultaneous decay in product formation. These inhibitors affect the cellular physiology by disturbing the […]

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Conclusions & recommendations

Bacterial and yeast isolates capable of simultaneous saccharification and ethanol fermentation of agro-industrial wastes such as sugarcane bagasse, an industrial cellulosic waste material, may be exploited to convert the very stable carbohydrate material to its monomeric constituents and the biofuel. The consolidated processing of the substrate (sugarcane bagasse) employing mono as well as co-cultures of the microorganisms can be escalated […]

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ETBE production

The method was also applied to the synthesis of ethyl tert-butyl ether (ETBE) from two biomass-derivable alcohols (ethanol and tert-butyl alcohol). ETBE, is commonly used as an additive in gasoline to increase the octane number. Recently, EtOH is the most after-sought biofuel replacement for crude-oil-derived gasoline. However, ETBE is thought to offer equal or greater air quality benefits as ethanol, […]

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Enzymatic clarification

Enzymatic detoxification is the most preferred biotechnological route of inhibitors’ clarification. Laccase and peroxidases enzymes derived from white rot fungi (Trametes versicolor, Phenorochete chrysosporium, Cythus bulleri, C. stercoreous, and Pycnoporous cinnabarinus) have been found effective for the removal of phenolics from the lignocellulose hydrolysates. Jonsson et al. [1998] explored laccase and peroxidase enzymes of the white-rot fungus T. versicolor to […]

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Reaction constants

Having successfully determined the accurate k values for the reactions through the mathematical models, a number of other important kinetic information can be derived. These kinetic coefficients can be correlated with temperature by applying the Arrhenius Equation, and from that additional information, such as the activation energy and the pre­exponential factor, can be obtained. This correlation is demonstrated below4:

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