Category Archives: Biodiesel science and technology

Biodegradative pathways

Biodegradative pathways are strongly involved in vegetable oil quality. Lipolytic activities in the oil palm fruit mesocarp are important for the acidity of the final oil product. Oil palm fruit lipases are particularly important because they are responsible for the increase in oil acidity in certain conditions. While polyunsaturated fatty acids are not usually in a free state in plants, […]

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Low-quality feedstocks

The economics of biodiesel production may be improved through the use of low-value lipids as (extremely) low-cost feedstocks (see Table 5.31). Moreover, as no one raw material is in adequate supply to be used solely for biodiesel production, fats from the rendering industry are expected to play an increasingly important role as a highly desirable feedstock [246a]. Recently, a growing […]

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Life cycle assessment of biodiesel

The life cycle evaluation programme is a method to determine and compare the environmental aspects and potential impacts associated with alternativeproducts or processes, considering the relevant energy and materials inputs and releases, from the initial resource extraction to waste disposal. Life cycle analysis of chemicals not only allows evaluation of the contribution to energy efficiency on the basis of energy […]

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Vegetable oil formulations for utilisation as biofuels

Abstract: Although direct use of high-viscosity straight vegetable oils in standard modern diesel engines has been reported, the practice of using such non-regulated fuels is generally not recommended as short — and long-term problems do result. Engine compatibility for vegetable oils and animal fats may be enhanced chemically (by derivatisation, pyrolysis/gasification, ozonation) or physically (by dilution, blending, microemulsification). Fuel properties […]

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Fatty acid esterification

Biodiesel can be produced by transesterification of triglycerides or by esterification of fatty acids. Esterification of carboxylic acids (specifically FFAs) is directly relevant to biodiesel synthesis given the increasing importance of low-cost lipid feedstocks containing high FFA concentrations. Esterification is a more facile reaction than transesterification because it allows easy elimination of a reaction product (water); this is not the […]

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